Metabotropic glutamate receptors and fragile x mental retardation protein: partners in translational regulation at the synapse.
ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) mental retardation is caused by loss-of-function mutations in an RNA-binding protein, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Previous studies in patients or animal models of FXS have identified alterations in dendritic spine structure, as well as synaptic plasticity induced by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). The translation of multiple messenger RNA (mRNA) targets of FMRP is regulated by mGluRs at synapses. Here, we incorporate data from several studies into a working model of how FMRP regulates mGluR-stimulated protein synthesis and, in turn, regulates protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity. Understanding the complex functions of FMRP at the synapse will lead to a better understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of mental retardation.
- SourceAvailable from: Hansen WangFrontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 02/2015; 9:43. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00043 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate-5 receptors (mGluR5), which physically and functionally interact with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, likewise control cognitive processes and have been proposed as targets for novel classes of antipsychotic agent. Since social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia and disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists like dizocilpine, we evaluated its potential modulation by mGluR5. Acute administration (0.63-40 mg/kg) of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) and ADX47273, reversed a delay-induced impairment in social novelty discrimination (SND) in adult rats. The action of CDPPB was blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (2.5-10 mg/kg), and was also expressed upon microinjection into frontal cortex (0.63-10 μg/side), but not striatum. Supporting an interrelationship between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors, enhancement of SND by CDPPB was blocked by dizocilpine (0.08 mg/kg) while, reciprocally, dizocilpine-induced impairment in SND was attenuated by CDPPB (10 mg/kg). The SND deficit elicited by post-natal administration of phencyclidine (10 mg/kg, days 7-11) was reversed by CDPPB or ADX47273 in adults at week 8. This phencyclidine-induced impairment in cognition emerged in adult rats from week 7 on, and chronic, pre-symptomatic treatment of adolescent rats with CDPPB over weeks 5-6 (10 mg/kg per day) prevented the appearance of SND deficits in adults until at least week 13. In conclusion, as evaluated by a SND procedure, mGluR5 PAMs promote social cognition via actions expressed in interaction with NMDA receptors and exerted in frontal cortex. MGluR5 PAMs not only reverse but also (when given during adolescence) prevent the emergence of cognitive impairment associated with a developmental model of schizophrenia.Psychopharmacology 09/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00213-012-2845-3 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic spines are the principal recipients of excitatory synaptic inputs and the basic units of neural computation in the mammalian brain. Alterations in the density, size, shape, and turnover of mature spines, or defects in how spines are generated and establish synapses during brain development, could all result in neuronal dysfunction and lead to cognitive and/or behavioral impairments. That spines are abnormal in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and in the best-studied animal model of this disorder, the Fmr1 knockout mouse, is an undeniable fact. But the trouble with spines in FXS is that the exact nature of their defect is still controversial. Here, we argue that the most consistent abnormality of spines in FXS may be a subtle defect in activity-dependent spine plasticity and maturation. We also propose some future directions for research into spine plasticity in FXS at the cellular and ultrastructural levels that could help solve a two-decade-long riddle about the integrity of synapses in this prototypical neurodevelopmental disorder.Neuroscience 04/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.03.049 · 3.33 Impact Factor