Action potential propagation imaged with high temporal resolution near-infrared video microscopy and polarized light
ABSTRACT To identify the neural constituents responsible for generating polarized light changes, we created spatially resolved movies of propagating action potentials from stimulated lobster leg nerves using both reflection and transmission imaging modalities. Changes in light polarization are associated with membrane depolarization and provide sub-millisecond temporal resolution. Typically, signals are detected using light transmitted through tissue; however, because we eventually would like to apply polarization techniques in-vivo, reflected light is required. In transmission mode, the optical signal was largest throughout the center of the nerve, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the inner nerve bundle. In reflection mode, polarization changes were largest near the edges, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the outer sheath. In support of these observations, an optical model of the tissue showed that the outer sheath is more reflective while the inner nerve bundle is more transmissive. In order to apply these techniques in-vivo, we must consider that brain tissue does not have a regular orientation of processes as in the lobster nerve. We tested the effect of randomizing cell orientation by tying the nerve in an overhand knot prior to imaging, producing polarization changes that can be imaged even without regular cell orientations.
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ABSTRACT: The mechanism of neural activity detection using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon was theoretically explored in this paper. Investigating the mechanism of SPR neural recordings has been difficult due to the complex relationship between different physiological and physical processes such as excitation of a nerve fiber and coherent charge fluctuations on the metal surface. This paper examines how these different processes may be connected by introducing a set of compartmental theoretical models that deal with the molecular scale phenomena; Poisson–Boltzmann (PB) equation, which was used to describe the ion concentration change under the time varying electrostatic potential, Drude–Lorentz electron model, which was used to describe electron dynamics under the time varying external forces, and a Fresnel's three-layered model, which expresses the reflectivity of the SPR system in terms of the dielectric constants. Each physical theoretical model was numerically analyzed using the finite element method (FEM) formulated for the PB equation and the Green's method formulated for the Drude–Lorentz electron equation. The model predicts that the ionic thermal force originating from the opening of the K+ ion channel is fundamental for modifying the dipole moment of the gold's free electron; thus, the reflectivity is changed in the SPR system. The discussion was done also on important attributes of the SPR signal such as biphasic fluctuation and the electrical noise-free characteristics.Optics & Laser Technology 07/2011; 43(5-43):938-948. DOI:10.1016/j.optlastec.2010.12.010 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a recently developed medical imaging method which has the potential to produce images of fast neuronal depolarization in the brain. The principle is that current remains in the extracellular space at rest but passes into the intracellular space during depolarization through open ion channels. As current passes into the intracellular space across the capacitance of cell membranes at higher frequencies, applied current needs to be below 100 Hz. A method is presented for its measurement with subtraction of the contemporaneous evoked potentials which occur in the same frequency band. Neuronal activity is evoked by stimulation and resistance is recorded from the potentials resulting from injection of a constant current square wave at 1 Hz with amplitude less than 25% of the threshold for stimulating neuronal activity. Potentials due to the evoked activity and the injected square wave are removed by subtraction. The method was validated with compound action potentials in crab walking leg nerve. Resistance changes of -0.85+/-0.4% (mean+/-SD) occurred which decreased from -0.97+/-0.43% to -0.46+/-0.16% with spacing of impedance current application electrodes from 2 to 8 mm but did not vary significantly with applied currents of 1-10 microA. These tallied with biophysical modelling, and so were consistent with a genuine physiological origin. This method appears to provide a reproducible and artefact free means for recording resistance changes during neuronal activity which could lead to the long-term goal of imaging of fast neural activity in the brain.Journal of neuroscience methods 06/2009; 180(1):87-96. DOI:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2009.03.012 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure cerebral hemodynamic evoked responses (slow optical signal) is well established, its ability to measure non-invasively the 'fast optical signal' is still controversial. Here, we aim to determine the feasibility of performing NIRS measurements of the 'fast optical signal' or Event-Related Optical Signals (EROS) under optimal experimental conditions in awake behaving macaque monkeys. These monkeys were implanted with a 'recording well' to expose the dura above the primary visual cortex (V1). A custom-made optical probe was inserted and fixed into the well. The close proximity of the probe to the brain maximized the sensitivity to changes in optical properties in the cortex. Motion artifacts were minimized by physical restraint of the head. Full-field contrast-reversing checkerboard stimuli were presented to monkeys trained to perform a visual fixation task. In separate sessions, two NIRS systems (CW4 and ISS FD oximeter), which previously showed the ability to measure the fast signal in human, were used. In some sessions EEG was acquired simultaneously with the optical signal. The increased sensitivity to cortical optical changes with our experimental setup was quantified with 3D Monte Carlo simulations on a segmented MRI monkey head. Averages of thousands of stimuli in the same animal, or grand averages across the two animals and across repeated sessions, did not lead to detection of the fast optical signal using either amplitude or phase of the optical signal. Hemodynamic responses and visual evoked potentials were instead always detected with single trials or averages of a few stimuli. Based on these negative results, despite the optimal experimental conditions, we doubt the usefulness of non-invasive fast optical signal measurements with NIRS.NeuroImage 04/2009; 45(2):410-9. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.12.014 · 6.13 Impact Factor