Article

Iron deficiency and infant motor development.

Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5406, USA.
Early Human Development (Impact Factor: 1.93). 08/2008; 84(7):479-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2007.12.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Iron deficiency (ID) during early development impairs myelination and basal ganglia function in animal models.
To examine the effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and iron deficiency (ID) without anemia on infant motor skills that are likely related to myelination and basal ganglia function.
Observational study.
Full-term inner-city African-American 9- to 10-month-old infants who were free of acute or chronic health problems with iron status indicators ranging from IDA to iron sufficiency (n=106). Criteria for final iron status classification were met by 77 of these infants: 28 IDA, 28 non-anemic iron-deficient (NA ID), and 21 iron-sufficient (IS).
Gross motor developmental milestones, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB), motor quality factor of the Bayley Behavioral Rating Scale, and a sequential/bi-manual coordination toy retrieval task. General linear model analyses tested for linear effects of iron status group and thresholds for effects.
There were linear effects of iron status on developmental milestones, Peabody gross motor (suggestive trend), INFANIB standing item, motor quality, and toy retrieval. The threshold for effects was ID with or without anemia for developmental milestones, INFANIB standing item, and motor quality and IDA for toy retrieval.
Using a comprehensive and sensitive assessment of motor development, this study found poorer motor function in ID infants with and without anemia. Poorer motor function among non-anemic ID infants is particularly concerning, since ID without anemia is not detected by common screening procedures and is more widespread than IDA.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Tal Shafir, Oct 16, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
113 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The trajectory of the developing brain is characterized by a sequence of complex, nonlinear patterns that occur at systematic stages of maturation. Although significant prior neuroimaging research has shed light on these patterns, the challenge of accurately characterizing brain maturation, and identifying areas of accelerated or delayed development, remains. Altered brain development, particularly during the earliest stages of life, is believed to be associated with many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this work, we develop a framework to construct voxel-wise estimates of brain age based on magnetic resonance imaging measures sensitive to myelin content. 198 myelin water fraction (VFM) maps were acquired from healthy male and female infants and toddlers, 3 to 48 months of age, and used to train a sigmoidal-based maturational model. The validity of the approach was then established by testing the model on 129 different VFM datasets. Results revealed the approach to have high accuracy, with a mean absolute percent error of 13% in males and 14% in females, and high predictive ability, with correlation coefficients between estimated and true ages of 0.945 in males and 0.94 in females. This work represents a new approach toward mapping brain maturity, and may provide a more faithful staging of brain maturation in infants beyond chronological or gestation-corrected age, allowing earlier identification of atypical regional brain development. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 01/2015; 36(4). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22671 · 6.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of this study is to explore factors associated with iron depletion and parasites in preschool and school children attending the Instituto Alteño para el Desarrollo de Jalisco (INADEJ) and children who attend preschools and schools in Arandas, Jalisco. Methods: This cross sectional study assessed two groups of children. In the INADEJ group, 102 children aged 60 to 144 months old were included, and in the School group of Arandas, Jalisco, 206 children were randomly selected from schools and preschools in the same municipality. Variables: Ferritin concentration (μg/ml), parasites, demographic, socioeconomic, educational and dietary data were collected. The Student's t test, U Mann Whitney, chi square, odds ratio and logistic regressions were estimated. Results: Family income in the Schools group was $5,707 Mexican pesos (MP), which was higher than the family income in the INADEJ group ($4,311 MP), p = 0.031. The proportion of parents with incomplete primary education was higher in the INADEJ group (41.3%) than in the Schools group (35.4%) [OR = 1.88 (1.0-3.55)]. Unstable work was more frequent in the INADEJ group than in the Schools group [OR = 5.6 (3.26-9.62)]. The ferritin concentration was lower in the INADEJ group than in the Schools group (25 μg/L vs. 60 μg/mL, respectively), p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A newborn who receives a placental transfusion at birth, either from cord milking or delayed cord clamping, obtains about 30% more blood volume than the newborn whose cord is cut immediately. Receiving an adequate blood volume from placental transfusion at birth may be protective for the distressed neonate as it prevents hypovolemia and can support optimal perfusion to all organs. New research shows that ventilating before clamping the umbilical cord can reduce large swings in cardiovascular function and help to stabilize the newborn. Hypovolemia, often associated with nuchal cord or shoulder dystocia, may lead to an inflammatory cascade and subsequent ischemic injury. A sudden unexpected neonatal asystole at birth may occur from severe hypovolemia. The restoration of blood volume is an important action to protect the hearts and brains of these neonates. Current protocols for resuscitation imply immediate cord clamping and the care of the newborn away from the mother's bedside. We suggest that an intrapartum care provider can achieve placental transfusion for the distressed neonate by milking the cord several times or resuscitating the neonate at the perineum with an intact cord. Milking the cord can be done quickly within the current Neonatal Resuscitation Program guidelines. Cord blood gases can be collected with delayed cord clamping. Bringing the resuscitation to the mother's bedside is a novel concept and supports an intact cord. Adopting a policy for resuscitation with an intact cord in a hospital setting will take concentrated effort and team work by obstetrics, pediatrics, midwifery, and nursing.
    Journal of midwifery & women's health 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/jmwh.12206 · 1.04 Impact Factor