Effect of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine on aerobic and anaerobic performance

Dept. of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA.
International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.44). 02/2008; 18(1):19-36.
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) supplementation and endurance training for 8 wk on aerobic- and anaerobic-exercise performance in healthy men and women (age 18-44 yr). Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: placebo (n=9), 1 g/d GPLC (n=11), or 3 g/d GPLC (n=12), in a double-blind fashion. Muscle carnitine (vastus lateralis), VO(2peak), exercise time to fatigue, anaerobic threshold, anaerobic power, and total work were measured at baseline and after an 8-wk aerobic-training program. There were no statistical differences (p> .05) between or within the 3 groups for any performance-related variable or muscle carnitine concentrations after 8 wk of supplementation and training. These results suggest that up to 3 g/d GPLC for 8 wk in conjunction with aerobic-exercise training is ineffective for increasing muscle carnitine content and has no significant effects on aerobic- or anaerobic-exercise performance.

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    • "The effect of exercise performance improvement by L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion may not be expected in the case of the present relatively brief, high-intensity exercise. Many previous studies have reported the effects of amino acid ingestion on improving performance, but a variety of exercise types were used (Smith et al., 2008; Zoeller et al., 2007; de Araujo et al., 2006; Norton and Layman. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: L-Ornithine has an important role in ammonia metabolism via the urea cycle. This study aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on performance during incremental exhaustive ergometer bicycle exercise and ammonia metabolism during and after exercise. In all, 14 healthy young adults (age: 22.2±1.0 years, height: 173.5±4.6 cm, body mass: 72.5±12.5 kg) who trained regularly conducted incremental exhaustive ergometer bicycle exercises after -ornithine hydrochloride supplementation (0.1 g/kg, body mass) and placebo conditions with a cross-over design. The exercise time (sec) of the incremental ergometer exercise, exercise intensity at exhaustion (watt), maximal oxygen uptake (ml per kg per min), maximal heart rate (beats per min) and the following serum parameters were measured before ingestion, 1 h after ingestion, just after exhaustion and 15 min after exhaustion: ornithine, ammonia, urea, lactic acid and glutamate. All indices on maximal aerobic capacity showed insignificant differences between both the conditions. Plasma ammonia concentrations just after exhaustion and at 15 min after exhaustion were significantly more with ornithine ingestion than with placebo. Plasma glutamate concentrations were significantly higher after exhaustion with ornithine ingestion than with placebo. It was suggested that, although the ingestion of L-ornithine hydrochloride before the exercise cannot be expected to improve performance, it does increase the ability to buffer ammonia, both during and after exercise.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 10/2010; 64(10):1166-71. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2010.149 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Those findings are particularly notable as GPLC is the first and only nutritional supplement product proven to increase NO synthesis. Smith and associates [30] reported findings related to a group of previously inactive persons, who for eight weeks performed stationary cycling and/or walking with GPLC supplementation. Study participants were randomized to receive placebo, 1 or 3 g GPLC per day. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years) participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL), in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP) and mean values (MP) of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC) were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (LAC) were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Significant main effects (p < 0.001) were observed for sprint bout order in values of PP, MP, DEC, and HR. There were significant main effects detected for condition in PP and MP (p < 0.05), with values across the five sprint bouts 2.6 – 15% greater with GPLC. Significant statistical interactions were detected between bout order and condition for both PP and MP (p < 0.05). There was a significant main effect of condition for LAC, LAC values 15.7% lower 4 min post-exercise with GPLC (p = 0.09) and with GPLC resulting in 16.2% less LAC at 14 min post-exercise (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 04/2009; 6(1):1-11. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-6-9 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carnitine (L-3-hydroxytrimethylamminobutanoate) is a naturally occurring compound that can be synthesized in mammals from the essential amino acids lysine and methionine or ingested through diet. Primary sources of dietary carnitine are red meat and dairy products; however, commercially produced supplements also are available and have been shown to be safe in humans. Carnitine is stored primarily in skeletal muscle, with lower concentrations in plasma. Biologically, carnitine is essential for the transport of long-chain (carbon chain length = 10) fatty acids across the outer- and inner-mitochondrial membranes (carnitine palmitoyltransferanse I and II, respectively). Conflicting results characterized the early research focused on L-carnitine supplementation's ability to enhance endurance performance, and studies showed no changes occurred in muscle carnitine levels. Nevertheless, promising findings for its use have been observed for various pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, which show it might mitigate some negative effects and enhance physical function. Recent studies have focused upon a different paradigm for L-carnitine in regulating hypoxic stress and enhancing recovery from exercise.
    Current Sports Medicine Reports 07/2008; 7(4):218-23. DOI:10.1249/JSR.0b013e318180735c · 1.55 Impact Factor
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