Adenocarcinoma arising from chronic perianal Crohn's disease: Case report and review of the literature
ABSTRACT Perianal disease is a common manifestation of Crohn's disease. Rarely malignancy arises in perianal fistulas. The etiology of fistula related cancer remains a subject of debate. We present a unique case of a perianal Crohn's disease with adenomatous epithelialization of a fistula tract and an associated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Our case demonstrates that mucinous adenocarcinoma can arise in long standing perianal Crohn's disease and may be associated with adenomatous transformation of the epithelial lining of the fistula tract.
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ABSTRACT: Anorectal fistulas are quite common proctologic disorders. They can be either of cryptoglandular origin or can be associated with Crohn's disease and chronic ileocolitis. Mechanical obstruction and local infections are prime causes of this pathological condition. Genetic predisposition and inadequate immune response with overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines appear prominently in the course of Crohn's disease. Interferon-gamma, a Th1 type cytokine, reflecting the engagement of cellular immune mechanisms, is the first to be produced in the intestinal mucosa. The inflammatory process in the colon mucosa induced by the abundant microbial flora is sustained and turned chronic by the gradual elevation of the local TNF-a and regulatory cytokines levels (interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-beta). The number of activated local memory T cells CD4+CD45RBl0 increases significantly. The regulatory CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes producing interleukin-10 increase also trying to counterbalance the cytokine reaction. The chronic inflammatory infiltrates of the colon mucosa are represented by lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages. The long-term activation of macrophages by the released interferon-gamma leads to tissue damage and potentiation of angiogenesis--a risk factor for carcinoma development. Management of anorectal abscesses and fistulas is complex aiming to alleviate the symptoms, prevent relapses, reduce the risk of sphincter damage and improve quality of life. The main approach (surgery) should be combined with antimicrobial infection control and immunomodulation by intravenous or local administration of anti-TNF-alpha antibodies.Folia medica 10/2010; 52(4):5-12. DOI:10.2478/v10153-010-011-4
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