CD49d expression is an independent predictor of overall survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: A prognostic parameter with therapeutic potential

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
British Journal of Haematology (Impact Factor: 4.71). 03/2008; 140(5):537-46. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2007.06965.x
Source: PubMed


In vitro studies have demonstrated that surface expression of CD49d on chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) B cells facilitates leukaemic cell-stromal interactions by binding to fibronectin. This interaction reduces both spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis. The present study measured CD49d expression by flow cytometry in a cohort of untreated CLL patients previously accrued to a prospective observational study and evaluated the relationship with overall survival (OS). Among the 158 CLL patients tested, the percentage of leukaemic B cells expressing CD49d ranged from 0 to 100%. When all risk factors were treated as continuous variables, CD49d expression showed moderate correlation with expression of ZAP-70 (r = 0.54; P < 0.0001) and CD38 (r = 0.58; P < 0.0001) but not %IGHV mutation. As a continuous variable, CD49d expression strongly correlated with OS (P < 0.0001). Recursive partitioning analysis suggested the 45% threshold of CD49d expression best predicted OS. Multivariate analysis, controlling for disease stage, ZAP-70, IGHV status and fluorescent in situ hybridization defects identified CD49d as an independent predictor of OS and was a better predictor of clinical outcome than ZAP-70, IGHV, or cytogenetics. This observational cohort study suggests that CLL B-cell expression of CD49d is an easily measurable and independent predictor of OS and CD49d expression in CLL. Importantly, anti-CD49d antibodies are already approved for treatment of other human diseases. Clinical testing of anti-CD49d therapy in CLL appears warranted.

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    • "VLA-4 is variably expressed by CLL patients and predicts disease progression. CLL patients with higher VLA-4 expression are characterized by more rapid disease progression when compared to patients with low expression [23,24]. Moreover, VLA-4 expression increases the ability of CLL cells to access protective niches [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC). We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNFα-induced VCAM-1 (CD106) expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d) resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83830. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083830 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "A more recently discovered marker is CD49d, the alpha4 subunit of the VLA-4 integrin (alpha4beta1). High CD49d expression predicts reduced overall survival and time to first treatment in CLL patients [10, 11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The interactions of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with the microenvironment in secondary lymphoid tissues and the bone marrow are known to promote CLL cell survival and proliferation. CD38 and CD49d are both independent prognostic risk parameters in CLL with important roles in shaping these interactions. Both are reported to influence CLL cell trafficking between blood and lymphoid organs as well as their survival and proliferation within the lymphoid organs, thereby impacting the pathophysiology of the disease. The expression of CD38 and CD49d is associated in the majority of cases, and they exist as part of macromolecular complexes. Here, we review the current evidence for the individual and associated contributions of these molecules to CLL pathophysiology.
    Annals of Hematology 11/2013; 93(3). DOI:10.1007/s00277-013-1967-y · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    • "In a recent study of over 300 CLL patients, Gattei and colleagues showed that CD49d was an independent predictor for both time to treatment (HR=1.74) and overall survival (HR=3.52) [52]. Recent data from Majid and colleagues also demonstrate that CD49d is associated with CXCR4 expression in CLL, suggesting a coordinated role for these molecules in the trafficking of CLL cells to lymphoid tissues [53]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an indolent lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by both circulating peripheral disease as well as involvement of the lymph nodes and bone marrow. Increasing evidence suggests that the stromal microenvironment provides anti-apoptotic and pro-survival signals to CLL cells, and may contribute significantly to resistance to a wide variety of treatments. Our understanding of the complex interactions involved in CLL cell trafficking continues to grow. Chemokines and corresponding chemokine receptors are key factors for organizing CLL cell trafficking and homing and the complex cellular interactions between CLL and accessory cells. Important chemokines include CCL3, CCL4, and CCL22, which are released by CLL cells, and CXCL12, CXCL13, CXCL9, 10, 11, CCL 19, and CCL21, which are constitutively secreted by various stromal cells. Integrins such as VLA-4 (CD49d) as well as selectins and CD44 also likely play a role in directing CLL cell migration within the tissue microenvironments. Data are also emerging that other molecules such as MMP-9 and cytoskeletal proteins also contribute to CLL cell trafficking. Though this interplay is complex, it is critical that we improve our understanding of CLL cell trafficking to facilitate the development of novel therapies that target these pathways. Several drugs in clinical development, such as CXCR4 antagonists and PI3K, Btk, and Syk inhibitors appear to modulate CLL cell trafficking and CLL-stroma interactions. Here, we review the current understanding of the molecular interactions that underlie CLL cell trafficking and we highlight some of the promising approaches underway to target these pathways therapeutically in CLL.
    Open Journal of Hematology 02/2012; 3(S1). DOI:10.13055/ojhmt_3_S1_03.120221
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