Restrictions in means for suicide: An effective tool in preventing suicide: The Danish experience
ABSTRACT Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. The effect on method-specific suicide rate and overall suicide rate of restrictions on availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates, and dextropropoxyphene was examined. From 1970 to 2000, overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality in Denmark were compared with official information about availability of barbiturates and analgesics and carbon monoxide in vehicle exhaust and household gas. Restrictions on availability of household gas with carbon monoxide content and barbiturates was associated with a decline in the number of suicides and suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds after controlling for the effect of calender year. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55 percent decrease in suicide rate.
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ABSTRACT: In an opposed-jet diffusion flame experiment, under certain conditions, after the extinction of the diffusion flame, an edge flame can be obtained. This ring-shaped edge flame was first reported in 1959 by Potter and Butler but received little attention. It was reported again recently in a numerical and an experimental work and is responsible for an interesting transition between two distinct burning flames (multiple solutions). Motivated by our previous numerical results, obtained with simplified kinetics and some recently reported experimental data, we performed direct numerical simulations of this transition to investigate the underlying physical mechanisms. The appearance of an edge flame after the extinction of the diffusion flame, the hysteresis reported in the experiments, and the existence of multiple vigorously burning flames at identical conditions are all captured by our simulations. Our numerical results show that, in the absence of an inert coflow curtain, when the diffusion flame disk is extinguished, an edge flame forms and propagates in the mixing layer. After the formation of this edge flame, even when the applied strain rate is reduced to the initial subcritical value, the diffusion flame disk does not reappear, because the local fluid velocity still exceeds the propagation speed of the edge flame. This hysteresis has significant implications in the common submodel that utilizes the strain rate as a parameter to determine local reignition in flamelet models; it indicates that a subcritical strain rate is not a sufficient condition for the reignition of a diffusion flame. Further investigation of this phenomenon is clearly needed to refine submodels of local extinction and reignition in the flamelet models for turbulent diffusion flames. The opposedjet configuration provides a convenient platform to analyze edge flames which are stabilized aerodynamically in a two-dimensional geometry, thus making matching two-dimensional direct numerical simulations effective.Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 01/2000; 28(1-28):801-806. DOI:10.1016/S0082-0784(00)80283-0 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Physicians and medical trainees (medical students and residents) are at increased risk for suicidal ideation. Yet few conceptual models have attempted to explain the elevated rates of suicide among physicians, and very little is known about what factors contribute to medical trainees' suicidal ideation and behaviors. In this paper, Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidality will be explored as it applies to suicidal ideation and behavior among physicians and medical trainees. Literature addressing each component of the theory will be reviewed. Drawing upon extant data, each dimension of the theory (burden, thwarted belongingness, and acquired ability) will be examined in depth in terms of its applicability to suicidal thinking and behavior among physicians and physicians-in-training. Findings from the literature provide support for the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidality as applied to this population.Archives of suicide research: official journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research 02/2009; 13(1):1-14. DOI:10.1080/13811110802571801