Dissociated production of perforin, granzyme B, and IFN-gamma by HIV-specific CD8(+) cells in HIV infection.
ABSTRACT CD8(+) T cells play a crucial role in the control of viral infections such as HIV. The functional characterization of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells has so far been largely restricted to studies of IFN-gamma. The TCR-triggered release of the effector molecules perforin (PFN) and granzyme B (GzB), however, is thought to be a central pathway for the destruction of virus-infected target cells by CD8(+) effector T cells. Here we would like to address two major findings. On the one hand we propose that ex vivo measurements of PFN and GzB secretion via ELISPOT may permit the distinction between in vivo resting versus activated CD8(+) memory T cells in healthy and HIV-infected individuals. Therefore, extending the present standard of IFN-gamma measurements to the analysis of PFN and GzB release in functional T cell assays will provide new insights into CD8(+) effector T cell functions. It should enable the evaluation of therapeutic vaccination efficacy by its ability to reactivate and convert IFN-gamma-positive, but GzB- and PFN-negative memory CD8(+) T cells into PFN/GzB-secreting effector cells. On the other hand, we report on a frequent ex vivo dissociation of the HIV peptide-induced secretion of PFN and GzB in chronic HIV infection underlining CD8(+) effector T cell diversity in this disease--an aspect that also has to be accounted for in immune monitoring approaches.
Article: Lack of disease specificity limits the usefulness of in vitro costimulation in HIV- and HCV-infected patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Measurements of antigen-specific T cell responses in chronic diseases are limited by low frequencies of antigen-specific cells in the peripheral blood. Therefore, attempts have been made to add costimulatory molecules such as anti-CD28 or IL-7/IL-15 to ELISPOT assays to increase sensitivity. While this approach has been successful under certain circumstances, results are often inconsistent. To date, there are no comprehensive studies directly comparing the in vitro effects of multiple costimulatory molecules in different disease settings. Therefore, in the present study we tested the effects of IL-7/IL-15, IFN-alpha, anti-ICOS, and anti-CD28 on antigen-specific T cell responses in patients infected with HCV or HIV versus healthy individuals. Our data show that none of the aforementioned molecules could significantly increase ELISPOT sensitivity, neither in HCV nor in HIV. Moreover, all of them caused false-positive responses to HCV and HIV antigens in healthy individuals. Our results question the broad use of in vitro costimulation.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 02/2008; 2008:590941. · 1.84 Impact Factor