Assessment of stigma towards homosexuality in China: a study of men who have sex with men.

Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), 50 Beale St., Suite 1300, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA.
Archives of Sexual Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.53). 03/2008; 37(5):838-44. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-007-9305-x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous research has documented the deleterious impact of homosexuality stigma on HIV sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the vulnerability of this group in China for HIV acquisition. Factor analysis of 10 survey items from 477 MSM from Shanghai yielded two factors: Perceived stigma assessed participants' impressions of the degree of societal stigmatization of homosexuals whereas enacted stigma measured direct personal experiences of stigmatizing behaviors. Enacted stigma exhibited satisfactory internal reliability and was associated with HIV sexual risk behavior. Further research is needed to refine perceived and other stigma constructs for Chinese MSM.

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    • "In our study, the overall reliability and scale reliabilities were examined in split samples and in the whole sample. All were fairly high, including the enacted homosexual stigma (experienced stigma) scale which either was not included or exhibited fair low reliability coefficient in previous studies [18] [19]. This type of stigma is very common among MSM and is related to internalized homosexual stigma [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To develop and assess a homosexuality-related stigma scale among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2011. We used a cross-validation approach. Factor analysis was performed, and interitem correlation matrices were constructed to identify the latent factor structures, examine the goodness of fit, and assess convergent and discriminant validity of the determined scales. Internal consistency checks were performed in split samples and whole sample, and separately for each determined factor. Results. The findings were consistent in split samples. Three homosexuality-related stigma factors were identified: enacted homosexual stigma, perceived homosexual stigma, and internalized homosexual stigma. The fit indices of the confirmatory factor analysis in both split samples supported the hypothesized three-factor structures (in subsamples A and B: /degrees of freedom ratio = 1.77 and 1.59, nonnormed fit index = 0.92 and 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.93 and 0.95, and the root mean square of approximation = 0.06 and 0.05, resp.). The interitem correlation supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. The reliability of the three scales indicated good consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.79–0.84) across split samples and for the whole data. Conclusion. Our scales have good psychometric properties for measuring homosexuality-related stigma. These comprehensive and practical tools are crucial not only to assess stigma against MSM and its consequence, but also to guide the development of interventions targeting MSM, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of existing stigma reduction efforts in Vietnam and other countries with similar settings.
    10/2013; 2013. DOI:10.1155/2013/174506
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    • "The cultural imperative of familial responsibility, rather than individual rights, results in the stigmatization of not only homosexual individuals, but also their family members (Lin, 1981). Many Chinese homosexual men are married to women while continuing to have secret homosexual relationships (Neillands et al., 2008; Wong et al., 2009). No studies have examined the relationships between the specific dimensions of Chinese culture and homosexuality-related stigma. "
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the interrelationships among individualism, collectivism, homosexuality-related stigma, social support, and condom use among Chinese homosexual men. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using the respondent-driven sampling approach was conducted among 351 participants in Shenzhen, China. Path analytic modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships. RESULTS: The results of path analytic modeling document the following statistically significant associations with regard to homosexuality: (1) higher levels of vertical collectivism were associated with higher levels of public stigma [β (standardized coefficient) = 0.12] and self stigma (β = 0.12); (2) higher levels of vertical individualism were associated with higher levels self stigma (β = 0.18); (3) higher levels of horizontal individualism were associated with higher levels of public stigma (β = 0.12); (4) higher levels of self stigma were associated with higher levels of social support from sexual partners (β = 0.12); and (5) lower levels of public stigma were associated with consistent condom use (β = -0.19). CONCLUSIONS: The findings enhance our understanding of how individualist and collectivist cultures influence the development of homosexuality-related stigma, which in turn may affect individuals' decisions to engage in HIV-protective practices and seek social support. Accordingly, the development of HIV interventions for homosexual men in China should take the characteristics of Chinese culture into consideration.
    02/2011; 1(1):27-35. DOI:10.5463/sra.v1i1.16
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    ABSTRACT: Faith-based organizations (FBOs) are influential in the Eastern Caribbean. To understand their role in HIV-related health programs, we conducted a cross-section of surveys and interviews with representatives from FBOs in four countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent and Grenadines. We examined HIV-related and sexual health activities, capacity to provide programs, and attitudinal influences, such as stigma. We found that although some FBOs are engaged in sexual health and HIV-related work, many are limited by formal church doctrines and parishioner perceptions about HIV. HIV prevention messages, for example, were centered on abstinence and monogamy. Promoting condom use was considered incompatible with church doctrine. HIV-related stigma and discrimination were considerable, primarily because attitudes toward men who have sex with men and sex workers were conditioned by views that these people engaged in “sinful” activities that should be renounced. Nevertheless, FBO leaders were motivated by compassion and wanted to provide care and psychosocial and spiritual support to HIV-infected people, and were willing to be part of the public health response to HIV, within the limits of their doctrines. FBOs may serve an important role in de-stigmatizing HIV among parishioners, emphasizing compassion and reframing HIV as a chronic health condition. However, for many sexuality-related issues and interventions, collaborations with outside organizations may be required.
    Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC 09/2013; DOI:10.1007/s13178-013-0123-8 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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