Assessment of Stigma Towards Homosexuality in China: A Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men

Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), 50 Beale St., Suite 1300, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA.
Archives of Sexual Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.53). 03/2008; 37(5):838-44. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-007-9305-x
Source: PubMed


Previous research has documented the deleterious impact of homosexuality stigma on HIV sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the vulnerability of this group in China for HIV acquisition. Factor analysis of 10 survey items from 477 MSM from Shanghai yielded two factors: Perceived stigma assessed participants' impressions of the degree of societal stigmatization of homosexuals whereas enacted stigma measured direct personal experiences of stigmatizing behaviors. Enacted stigma exhibited satisfactory internal reliability and was associated with HIV sexual risk behavior. Further research is needed to refine perceived and other stigma constructs for Chinese MSM.

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    • "1 . The term ' homophobic stigma ' is deployed in the text to encompass negative and discriminatory behaviors ( including verbal abuse , physical abuse , the threat of such abuse ) enacted against individuals marked as non - heteronormative by heteronormative majorities ( Neilands et al . 2008 ; Tucker et al . 2014 ) . 2 . This is not to discount other potential influences . For example factors noted as influencing the degree of ambassador participation in Cape Town ( e . g . volunteer training on bonding social capital ) were not such an issue for Zwakalani interviewees . 3 . isiXhosa for ' bringing people together ' . 4 . i"
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    ABSTRACT: Research reveals how homophobic stigma links closely to HIV among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper considers the varying impact of homophobic stigma on HIV prevention programmes among men who have sex with men in South Africa. It explores how a community-based HIV prevention programme based in the peri-urban townships of Cape Town was ‘translated’ to peri-urban Johannesburg. Drawing on interviews with volunteers and programme facilitators in Johannesburg, it argues that an altered homophobic environment to that found in Cape Town gave different opportunities to engage both with other men who have sex with men and the broader community. It also argues that programme facilitators should be mindful of how varying degrees of homophobic stigma may relate to broader theoretical debates about sexual binary relationships, which can help us understand why particular programmes choose to focus on certain activities rather than others.
    Culture Health & Sexuality 03/2015; DOI:10.1080/13691058.2015.1018948 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    • "In our study, the overall reliability and scale reliabilities were examined in split samples and in the whole sample. All were fairly high, including the enacted homosexual stigma (experienced stigma) scale which either was not included or exhibited fair low reliability coefficient in previous studies [18] [19]. This type of stigma is very common among MSM and is related to internalized homosexual stigma [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To develop and assess a homosexuality-related stigma scale among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2011. We used a cross-validation approach. Factor analysis was performed, and interitem correlation matrices were constructed to identify the latent factor structures, examine the goodness of fit, and assess convergent and discriminant validity of the determined scales. Internal consistency checks were performed in split samples and whole sample, and separately for each determined factor. Results. The findings were consistent in split samples. Three homosexuality-related stigma factors were identified: enacted homosexual stigma, perceived homosexual stigma, and internalized homosexual stigma. The fit indices of the confirmatory factor analysis in both split samples supported the hypothesized three-factor structures (in subsamples A and B: /degrees of freedom ratio = 1.77 and 1.59, nonnormed fit index = 0.92 and 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.93 and 0.95, and the root mean square of approximation = 0.06 and 0.05, resp.). The interitem correlation supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. The reliability of the three scales indicated good consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.79–0.84) across split samples and for the whole data. Conclusion. Our scales have good psychometric properties for measuring homosexuality-related stigma. These comprehensive and practical tools are crucial not only to assess stigma against MSM and its consequence, but also to guide the development of interventions targeting MSM, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of existing stigma reduction efforts in Vietnam and other countries with similar settings.
    10/2013; 2013(1). DOI:10.1155/2013/174506
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    • "The same relationship among stigma manifestations is likely to exist for Chinese MSM. Research has already shown that such men report relatively low levels of enacted stigma [10], [18]. If felt normative and internalized stigmas reduce willingness to disclose same sex attractions, then this absence of discrimination would effectively be a byproduct of the men presenting as heterosexual in most social situations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Stigma constitutes a critical challenge to the rising rates of HIV among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). It reduces willingness to disclose one's sexual orientation and can lead to concurrent sexual partnerships. Disclosure decisions are also affected by cultural norms that place pressures on sons to marry. In this manuscript, we characterize how stigma and cultural factors influenced Chinese MSM's decisions around disclosure and marriage. We seek to show that MSM's actions were motivated by moral considerations, even when those choices posed HIV transmission risks. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 MSM in Beijing, China. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English for analysis. Transcripts were coded using a procedure that allowed for themes to emerge organically. Participants struggled with feelings of shame and believed that others possessed stigmatizing attitudes about homosexuality. They had experienced relatively little discrimination because they infrequently disclosed their MSM status. In response to marital pressures, participant had to reconcile same-sex attractions with filial expectations. Their choices included: not being involved with women; putting on the appearance of a heterosexual relationship by marrying a lesbian; or fulfilling family expectations by marrying a heterosexual woman. Regardless of the decision, many rooted the justifications for their choices in the considerations they had given to others' needs. The growing epidemic among MSM in China requires action from the public health community. As programs are scaled up to serve these men, it is critical to remember that MSM, who often fear social sanction if they were to reveal their sexual orientation, continue to face the same pressures from culturally normative social duties as heterosexual men. Interventions must find ways to help men navigate a balance between their own needs and the responsibilities they feel toward their parents and others.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71778. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071778 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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