[Diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma].
ABSTRACT Bladder cancer represents the fifth most common malignancy in the US. In Germany we face 25,000 new incidences of urothelial cancers every year. At present a variety of different techniques is available for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. On the one hand techniques are needed that show the possible presence of a tumour and on the other hand procedures that can confirm a lesion to be a tumour, like in most cases histology does. The following article gives an overview of the currently used standards in the diagnosis of urothelial cancer. Also new techniques for diagnosis and surveillance of urothelial cancer are discussed. The combination of white light endoscopy and urine cytology is currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis. Transurethral biopsies or TUR-BT subsequently follow in the case of positive findings. To optimize the sensitivity and lower the recurrence rate as well as the residual tumour rate, fluorescence endoscopy can be used as an additional approach. Also urine-based markers play an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of urothelial carcinomas, but cannot yet be recommended as a single procedure in the routine diagnosis of bladder tumour.