Births: final data for 2005.
ABSTRACT This report presents 2005 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco use); medical care utilization by pregnant women (prenatal care, obstetric procedures, characteristics of labor and/or delivery, attendant at birth, and method of delivery); and infant characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, Apgar score, congenital anomalies, and multiple births). Also presented are birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence are shown, as well as data on month and day of birth, sex ratio, and age of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted.
Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 4.1 million births that occurred in 2005 are presented. Denominators for population-based rates are postcensal estimates derived from the U.S. 2000 census.
In 2005, 4,138,349 births were registered in the United States, 1 percent more than in 2004. The 2005 crude birth rate was 14.0, unchanged from the previous year; the general fertility rate increased slightly to 66.7. Teenage childbearing continued to decline, dropping to the lowest levels recorded. Rates for women aged 20-29 were fairly stable, whereas childbearing among women 30 years of age and older increased. All measures of unmarried childbearing rose substantially in 2005. Smoking during pregnancy continued to decline. No improvement was seen in the timely initiation of prenatal care. The cesarean delivery rate climbed to more than 30 percent of all births, another all-time high. Preterm and low birthweight rates also continued to rise; the twin birth rate was unchanged and the rate of triplet and higher order multiple births declined for the 7th consecutive year.
01/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-828-1
Article: Timing of prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a population study of 2.6 million pregnancies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To identify the impact of timing of prenatal stress exposure on offspring risk for shortened gestational age, preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA), using a population-based sample. Swedish longitudinal population registries were linked to study all individuals born in Sweden from 1973 to 2004. Prenatal maternal stress exposure was defined as death of the father of the child or first-degree relative of the mother. Using linear and logistic regression, timing of stress exposure was examined across pregnancy, by month, and by novel periods created based on month of stress exposure findings. A total of 2,618,777 live-born, singleton infants without congenital anomalies were included; 32,286 were exposed to prenatal maternal stress. Examining associations between stress exposure and outcome by the month revealed that risk increases midgestation, particularly after months 5 and 6. Combining months 1 to 4, 5 and 6, and 7 to 9 as potential periods of differing vulnerability, it was found that stress during period 2 (months 5 and 6) was associated with the greatest risk for shortened gestational age (-0.52 days, standard error = 0.15, p = .0006), PTB (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.42), LBW (OR, 1.38; 99% CI, 1.19-1.61), and SGA (OR, 1.25; 99% CI, 1.05-1.49). Risk for shortened GA, PTB, LBW, and SGA are greater post stress exposure during the 5th and/or 6th month of pregnancy. It may be beneficial to refine future analyses to these months. Possible mechanisms include alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated stress-responsive molecular regulators.Psychosomatic Medicine 02/2011; 73(3):234-41. · 3.97 Impact Factor
Article: Opportunities for primary and secondary prevention of excess gestational weight gain: General Practitioners' perspectives.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The impact of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) on maternal and child health outcomes is well documented. Understanding how health care providers view and manage GWG may assist with influencing healthy gestational weight outcomes. This study aimed to assess General Practitioner's (GPs) perspectives regarding the management and assessment of GWG and to understand how GPs can be best supported to provide healthy GWG advice to pregnant women. Descriptive qualitative research methods utilising semi - structured interview questions to assess GPs perspectives and management of GWG. GPs participating in shared antenatal care in Geelong, Victoria and Sydney, New South Wales were invited to participate in semi - structured, individual interviews via telephone or in person. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data was analysed utilising thematic analysis for common emerging themes. Twenty eight GPs participated, 14 from each state. Common themes emerged relating to awareness of the implications of excess GWG, advice regarding weight gain, regularity of gestational weighing by GPs, options for GPs to seek support to provide healthy lifestyle behaviour advice and barriers to engaging pregnant women about their weight. GPs perspectives concerning excess GWG were varied. They frequently acknowledged maternal and child health complications resulting from excess GWG yet weighing practices and GWG advice appeared to be inconsistent. The preferred support option to promote healthy weight was referral to allied health practitioners yet GPs noted that cost and limited access were barriers to achieving this. GPs were aware of the importance of healthy GWG yet routine weighing was not standard practice for diverse reasons. Management of GWG and perspectives of the issue varied widely. Time efficient and cost effective interventions may assist GPs in ensuring women are supported in achieving healthy GWG to provide optimal maternal and infant health outcomes.BMC Family Practice 11/2011; 12:124. · 1.80 Impact Factor