Antioxidant vitamins intake and the risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies
ABSTRACT Many epidemiological studies have reported that antioxidant vitamin intake from diet or supplements are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), the findings are, however, inconsistent. We undertook a meta-analysis of cohort studies to examine the relations between antioxidant vitamins (vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene) and CHD risk.
We included all the relevant cohort studies if they provided a relative risk and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of CHD in relation to antioxidant vitamins intake from diet or supplement. Fifteen cohort studies were identified involving a total of 7415 incident CHD cases and 374,488 participants with a median follow-up of approximately 10, 8.5, and 15 years for vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene, respectively. Pooled estimates across studies were obtained by random-effects model. The potential sources of heterogeneity and publication bias were also estimated. For vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene, a comparison of individuals in the top third with those in the bottom third of baseline value yielded a combined relative risk of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73-0.95), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89), and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.53-1.04), respectively. Subgroup analyses show that dietary intake of vitamins C and E and supplement use of vitamin E have an inverse association with CHD risk, but supplement use of vitamin C has no significant association with CHD risk. In the dose-response meta-analysis, each 30 mg/day increase in vitamin C, 30 IU/day increase in vitamin E, and 1 mg/day increase in beta-carotene yielded the estimated overall relative risk for CHD of 1.01 (95% CI, 0.99-1.02), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94-0.99), and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.88-1.14), respectively.
Our findings in this meta-analysis suggest that an increase in dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins has encouraging prospects for possible CHD prevention.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential role of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids in promoting healthier ageing. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted using Medline and key words relevant to ageing, nutritional status, nutrient intake and disease risk. Data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) were used to determine micronutrient adequacy. Findings – The NDNS showed that intakes of vitamin A, B2, B6, folic acid, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iodine fell below recommended levels for groups of older people. Vitamins and mineral supplements may improve nutritional status, lower the risk of deficiency, and impact favourably on disease markers. Practical implications – The evidence suggests that dietary interventions and supplementation may become increasingly important in maintaining health and quality of life in older people. Originality/value – This paper highlights the positive role of nutrition in healthy ageing.Nutrition & Food Science 10/2011; 41(6):420-429. DOI:10.1108/00346651111181976
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ABSTRACT: Cooking bananas (including plantains) are among the major commodities used in Sub Saharan Africa to combat food insecurity. It is estimated that more than 30% of the banana production are lost after harvest. The losses are mostly due to the rapid ripening of the fruits, poor handling, inadequate storage and transportation means, and poor knowledge of food processing options. Processing the fresh fruits into food products with a longer shelf life can provide a major outlet to use surpluses and to exploit a greater number of marketing options. In this paper, we provide ingredients and recipes for food products made by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) from its improved hybrids of cooking bananas to decrease post harvest losses, diversify the industrial potentials of bananas, and add value to farmers' products. Some of these processing methods can be used by farmers and rural entrepreneurs in their communities to ensure food security and raise their incomes, or upgraded by the private sector in a value chain approach to curb production losses in bananas.