Effects of puerarin on pulmonary vascular remodeling and protein kinase C-alpha in chronic cigarette smoke exposure smoke-exposed rats.
ABSTRACT In order to investigate the effects of puerarin on pulmonary vascular remodeling and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) in chronic exposure smoke rats, 54 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: control group (C group), smoke exposure groups (S4w group, S8w group), puerarin groups (P4w group, P8w group), propylene glycol control groups (PC4w group, PC8w group). Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke or air for 4 to 8 weeks. Rats in puerarin groups also received puerarin. To evaluate vascular remodeling, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SM-actin) staining was used to count the percentage of completely muscularised vessels to intraacinar pulmonary arteries (CMA/IAPA) which was determined by morphometric analysis of histological sections. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) apoptosis was detected by in situ end labeling technique (TUNEL), and proliferation by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis were done to detect the PKC-alpha mRNA and protein expression in pulmonary arteries. The results showed that in cigarette smoke-exposed rats the percentage of CMA/IAPA and alpha-SM-actin expression were increased greatly, PASMC apoptosis was increased and proliferation was markedly increased; Apoptosis indices (AI) and proliferation indices (PI) were higher than in C group; AI and PI were correlated with vascular remodeling indices; The expression of PKC-alpha mRNA and protein in pulmonary arteries was significantly higher than in C group. In rats treated with puerarin, the percentage of CMA/IAPA and cell proliferation was reduced, whereas PASMC apoptosis was increased; The expression levels of PKC-alpha mRNA and protein were lower than in smoke exposure rats. There was no difference among all these data between S groups and PC groups. These findings suggested that cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling was most likely an effect of the imbalance of PASMC proliferation and apoptosis. Puerarin appears to be able to reduce cell proliferation and vascular remodeling possibly through PKC signaling transduction pathway.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the potential role of ERK1/2-cyclinE1 signaling pathway in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (rPASMCs) proliferation and pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by cigarette smoke exposure. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (C group), S-1M, S-3M and S-6M groups (animals in the groups were exposed to smoke for 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively). HE staining and anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody staining were performed to observe the degree of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were performed to evaluate ERK1/2 and cyclinE1 expression in pulmonary vessels. Primary cultured rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (rPASMCs) were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). ERK inhibitor (PD98059) and cyclinE1 siRNA were used to verify the role of ERK1/2 and cyclinE1 in CSE-induced rPASMCs proliferation. Cell proliferation was assessed by cell counting and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Our results showed that abnormal pulmonary vascular remodeling was found in cigarette smoked rats. Compared to C group, activated ERK1/2 and cyclinE1 expression was significantly increased in smoke-exposure groups. This up-regulated expression was positively correlated with the severity of pulmonary vascular remodeling, and there was positive correlation between the expression of ERK1/2 and cyclinE1. PD98059 and cyclinE1 siRNA inhibited the proliferation of rPASMCs. The expression of cyclinE1 could be down-regulated by PD98059. Our data demonstrated that increased expression of ERK1/2 and cyclinE1 might be involved in the pathogenesis of abnormal rPASMCs proliferation and rat pulmonary vascular remodelling induced by cigarette smoke exposure.Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 06/2013; 33(3):315-22. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iptakalim is a new ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener, and it inhibits the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and pulmonary vascular remodeling. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we found that iptakalim significantly decreased pulmonary artery pressure, inhibited pulmonary ariery remodeling and PKC-α overexpression in chronic hypoxia in a rat pulmonary hypertension model. Iptakalim reduced hypoxia-induced expression of PKC-α, and abolished the effect of hypoxia on PASMC proliferation significantly in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Moreover, these effects were abolished by glibenclamide, a selective KATP channel antagonist. These results indicate that iptakalim inhibits PASMC proliferation and pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by hypoxia through downregulating the expression of PKC-α. Iptakalim can serve as a novel promising treatment for hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.Journal of biomedical research. 11/2011; 25(6):392-401.