Hemodynamic effects of local anesthetics intoxication: experimental study in swine with levobupivacaine and bupivacaine.
ABSTRACT To compare the hemodynamic repercussions following a toxic dose of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine intravascularly injected in swines. Methods: Large White pigs were anesthetized with thiopental, tracheal intubation was performed and mechanical ventilation was instituted. Hemodynamic variables were recorded with invasive pressure monitoring and pulmonary artery catheterization (Swan-Ganz catheter). After a 30-minute resting period, the animals were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion and received a bolus injection of 4 mg/kg of either agent for intoxication. Hemodynamic results were then evaluated at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes.
Levobupivacaine had greater hemodynamic repercussions than racemic bupivacaine. These results disagree with those found when the levorotatory isomer of bupivacaine was used in humans, but are in agreement with recently reported findings in animals.
Levobupivacaine was shown to be more toxic in pigs than racemic bupivacaine when large doses are injected intravenously.
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ABSTRACT: Systemic local anesthetic (LA) toxicity resulting from inadvertent intravascular injection of LA is a rare but potentially fatal event. Early recognition of intravascular injection and approaches to improve therapeutic safety are required. This study investigated the influence of intravascular injection dose rate of bupivacaine on bupivacaine plasma levels and timing of LA-induced cardiovascular compromise. Forty-five piglets, anesthetized with sevoflurane, were randomized into three groups. Bupivacaine was intravenously infused at a rate of 1, 4, or 16 mg/kg/min (groups A, B, and C, respectively) until mean arterial pressure (MAP) dropped to 50% of initial value. Thereafter, bupivacaine infusion was stopped and spontaneous hemodynamic course was observed. Time to MAP 50%, amount of bupivacaine infused, bupivacaine plasma level at infusion stop, spontaneous survivors, or time from bupivacaine stop to circulatory arrest were recorded. Median time to MAP 50% was 297, 119, and 65 s, respectively, in groups A, B, and C (P < 0.001). Median corresponding total amounts of bupivacaine infused were 5.0, 7.8, and 17.0 mg/kg (P < 0.01), and median bupivacaine plasma levels were 53.8, 180.0, and 439.8 μmol/l (P < 0.001). Five of 15 piglets in group A recovered spontaneously; in groups B and C, all animals died within 120 and 21 s, respectively. Higher dose rates of bupivacaine showed much higher plasma bupivacaine levels related to absolute infused dose at MAP 50% and were associated with an increased mortality. Slow administration of LA is recommended to allow timely detection and stopping of inadvertent intravascular administration.Journal of Anesthesia 07/2011; 25(5):710-5. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Local anesthetic (LA) intoxication with cardiovascular arrest is a potential fatal complication of regional anesthesia. Lipid resuscitation has been recommended for the treatment of LA-induced cardiac arrest. Aim of the study was to compare four different rescue regimens using epinephrine and/or lipid emulsion and vasopressin to treat cardiac arrest caused by bupivacaine intoxication. Twenty-eight piglets were randomized into four groups (4 × 7), anesthetized with sevoflurane, intubated, and ventilated. Bupivacaine was infused with a syringe driver via central venous catheter at a rate of 1 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1) until circulatory arrest. Bupivacaine infusion and sevoflurane were then stopped, chest compression was started, and the pigs were ventilated with 100% oxygen. After 1 min, epinephrine 10 μg·kg(-1) (group 1), Intralipid(®) 20% 4 ml·kg(-1) (group 2), epinephrine 10 μg·kg(-1) + Intralipid(®) 4 ml·kg(-1) (group 3) or 2 IU vasopressin + Intralipid(®) 4 ml·kg(-1) (group 4) were administered. Secondary epinephrine doses were given after 5 min if required. Survival was 71%, 29%, 86%, and 57% in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4. Return of spontaneous circulation was regained only by initial administration of epinephrine alone or in combination with Intralipid(®). Piglets receiving the combination therapy survived without further epinephrine support. In contrast, in groups 2 and 4, return of spontaneous circulation was only achieved after secondary epinephrine rescue. In cardiac arrest caused by bupivacaine intoxication, first-line rescue with epinephrine and epinephrine + Intralipid(®) was more effective with regard to survival than Intralipid(®) alone and vasopressin + Intralipid(®) in this pig model.Pediatric Anesthesia 08/2011; 22(2):124-9. · 2.44 Impact Factor