Article

Chasela, C. et al. Risk factors for late postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in sub-Saharan Africa. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 27, 251-256

University of North Carolina Project, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 3.14). 04/2008; 27(3):251-6. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31815b4960
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We conducted secondary data analyses of a clinical trial (HIVNET 024) to assess risk factors for late postnatal transmission (LPT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through breast-feeding.
Data regarding live born, singleton infants of HIV-1-infected mothers were analyzed. The timing of HIV-1 transmission through 12 months after birth was defined as: in utero (positive HIV-1 RNA results at birth), perinatal/early postnatal (negative results at birth, positive at 4-6 week visit), or LPT (negative results through the 4-6 week visit, but positive assays thereafter through the 12-month visit). HIV-1-uninfected infants were those with negative HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay results at 12 months of age, or infants with negative HIV-1 RNA results throughout follow-up.
Of 2292 HIV-1-infected enrolled women, 2052 mother/infant pairs met inclusion criteria. Of 1979 infants with HIV-1 tests, 404 were HIV-1-infected, and 382 had known timing of infection (LPT represented 22% of transmissions). Further analyses of LPT included infants who were breast-feeding at the 4-6 week visit (with negative HIV-1 results at that visit) revealed 6.9% of 1317 infants acquired HIV-1 infection through LPT by 12 months of age. More advanced maternal HIV-1 disease at enrollment (lower CD4 counts, higher plasma viral loads) were the factors associated with LPT in adjusted analyses.
In this breast-feeding population, 6.9% of infants uninfected at 6 weeks of age acquired HIV-1 infection by 12 months. Making interventions to decrease the risk of LPT of HIV-1 available and continuing research regarding the mechanisms of LPT (so as to develop improved interventions to reduce such transmission) remain essential.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Lynda Emel, Sep 03, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
113 Views
 · 
60 Downloads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the optimal time for a second HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification assay to detect late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 (first negative test at 4-8 weeks of age) in resource-limited settings. A longitudinal analysis of data from HIV Prevention Trial Network trial 024. Children born to HIV-1-infected mothers enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trial Network trial 024 were tested for HIV-1 infection at six intervals within the first year of life. Mothers and infants received nevirapine prophylaxis. We estimated the probability of being alive and having a positive test in each interval after 4-8 weeks and at 30 days after weaning, conditional on having acquired HIV during the late postnatal period. The interval with the highest probability was taken to be the optimal visit interval. A total of 1609 infants from HIV Prevention Trial Network trial 024 had at least one HIV-1 diagnostic test and were included in the analysis. We found that testing at 1 month after weaning or 12 months of age (whichever comes first) identified 81% of those infected during the late postnatal period (after 4-8 weeks) through breastfeeding. In total, 93% (95% confidence interval 89, 98) of all infected infants would be detected if tests were performed at these two time points. In resource-limited settings, HIV-1 PCR testing at 4-8 weeks followed by a second test at 1 month after weaning or at 1 year of age (whichever comes first), led to the identification of the vast majority of HIV-1-infected infants.
    AIDS (London, England) 12/2008; 22(17):2341-6. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328317cc15 · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our objectives were to assess clinical signs and diagnoses associated with primary HIV-1 infection among infants. We analyzed data from a clinical trial (HIV Prevention Trials Network Protocol 024) in sub-Saharan Africa. Study visits were conducted at birth, at 4-6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The study population comprised live born, singleton, first-born infants of HIV-1-infected women with negative HIV-1 RNA assays who were still breastfeeding at 4-6 weeks. Of 1317 HIV-1-exposed infants, 84 became HIV-1 infected after 4-6 weeks and 1233 remained uninfected. There were 102 primary and 5650 nonprimary infection visits. The most common signs were cough and diarrhea, and the most common diagnoses were malaria and pneumonia. Primary infection was associated with significantly increased odds of diarrhea [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4], pneumonia (OR = 3.5), otitis media (OR = 3.1), and oral thrush (OR = 2.9). For the clinical signs and diagnoses evaluated, sensitivity was low (1%-16.7%) and specificity was high (88.2%-99%). Positive predictive values ranged from 0.1%-1.4%. Negative predictive values ranged from 28.0%-51.1%. Certain clinical signs and diagnoses, although more common during primary HIV-1 infection, had low sensitivity and high specificity. Efforts to expand access to laboratory assays for the diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection among infants of HIV-1-infected women should be emphasized.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 05/2009; 51(3):317-22. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31819c18c3 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV prevention mandates an understanding of the mechanisms of mucosal immunity with attention to some unique features of the epidemic and mucosal environment in the developing world. An effective vaccine will have to induce mucosal protection against a highly diverse virus, which is equipped with a number of immune evasion strategies. Its development will require assessment of mucosal immune responses, and it will have to protect a mucosal environment where inflammation and altered immune responses are common because of the presence of other mucosal infections, such as sexually transmitted infections and parasites, and where nutritional status may also be compromised. Ideally, not only prevention methods would protect adults but also provide cover against gastrointestinal transmission through maternal milk. Prevention might also be complemented by microbicides and circumcision, two alternative approaches to mucosal protection. It seems unlikely that a single solution will work in all instances and intervention might have to act at multiple levels and be tailored to local circumstances. We review here some of the mucosal events associated with HIV infection that are most relevant in an African setting.
    Mucosal Immunology 06/2009; 2(4):300-14. DOI:10.1038/mi.2009.23 · 7.54 Impact Factor
Show more