Article

Postpartum uterine infection in cattle.

Department of Surgery and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
Animal Reproduction Science (Impact Factor: 1.9). 06/2008; 105(3-4):187-208. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.01.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Postpartum uterine infections results from uterine contamination with bacteria during parturition. The prevalence of uterine infections varies considerably among studies. Uterine infection implies adherence of pathogenic organisms to the mucosa, colonization or penetration of the epithelium, and/or release of bacterial toxins that lead to establishment of uterine disease. The development of uterine disease depends on the immune response of the cow, as well as the species and number (load or challenge) of bacteria. The postpartum uterus has a disrupted surface epithelium in contact with fluid and tissue debris that can support bacterial growth. A variety of species of bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes, can be isolated from the early postpartum uterus. Most of these are environmental contaminants that are gradually eliminated during the first 6 weeks postpartum. A normal postpartum cow resolves uterine infection by rapid involution of the uterus and cervix, discharge of uterine content, and mobilization of natural host defenses, including mucus, antibodies and phagocytic cells. Clinical signs of uterine infection vary with the virulence of the causative organisms and the presence of factors that predispose to the disease. The treatment of endometritis and metritis in bovine should be directed towards improving fertility. The antibiotic should be active against the main uterine pathogens and should maintain its activity in the environment of the uterus. Also, should not inhibit the normal defense mechanisms and should be well tolerated and not induce irritation in the endometrium. Effective use of hormones in uterine infection requires knowledge of both normal reproductive endocrinology and the therapeutic characteristics of available hormonal preparations.

7 Bookmarks
 · 
1,187 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retained placenta is one of the complications associated with parturition in dairy cows. A 4- year old Friesian-kedah cross cow weighing 400kg was presented to the large animal unit University Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia, with the complain of retained placenta 9 days prior to presentation. Clinical findings were pyrexia, congested mucous membranes and serosanguineous discharge with fetid odour from the vulva. Haematology and biochemistry findings showed an increase in packed cell volume, monocytosis, hyperglobulinaemia, hyperproteinemia, hypernatremia, hyperchloridaemia and increased level of creatine kinase. Bacterial culture from the swab samples of the vaginal discharge revealed growth of Escherichia coli. The retained placenta was manually removed by gentle traction and the uterus was lavaged using normal saline (0.9% NaCl) followed by an intrauterine infusion of Oxytetracycline hydrochloride L.A (20mg/kg). Systemic intramuscular injections of Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (20mg/kg Stat), Flunixine meglumine (1.1mg/kg) and multivitamin (10mg/kg) were administered. The prognosis was good after a follow up visit one week later. Retention of placenta following parturition is usually associated with bacterial pathogens. Therefore, prompt intervention in cases exceeding 24 hours post partum is important in order to avert the incidence of uterine infections that will threaten heard fertility. Key words: Retained placenta; Dairy cow; Uterine infection; Escherichia coli
    International Journal of Livestock Research. 05/2014; 4(2):120-125.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endometritis is one of the leading causes of infertility in the cattle and buffalo and innate immune mechanism plays an important role in clearing the infection. In this regard, endometrial expression and function of Toll Like Receptors (TLR) are focus of investigation in the recent years. In this study, we report the transcriptional profiles of TLR4 and 5 in the buffalo endometrium during the follicular, early, mid and late luteal phases of estrous cycle and 'subclinical and clinical endometritis' and also at true anestrus (n = 10 for each stage) using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR as they are the ligands for the lipopolysaccharide and flagellin components of E.coli, the most common cause of postpartum endometritis. We found a significant positive correlation between TLR4 and 5 in all the groups (r = 0.696-0.803; P < 0.05) except late luteal phase (r = 0.522; P > 0.05). Chi-square analysis showed that the qualitative expression of endometrial TLR4 and 5 transcripts was significantly associated with the phase of estrous cycle and also with uterine infection (P < 0.05). Further, using true anestrus category as a calibrator group, relative quantitation of TLR4 and 5 revealed that the transcriptional expression of TLR4 and 5 genes were highly upregulated (24.6-83.3 folds) during endometritis conditions and moderately upregulated during mid-luteal phase (6.8-16.2) of the estrous cycle (P < 0.05). The results suggested a role of progesterone in the expression of TLR4 and 5.
    Veterinary Research Communications 02/2014; · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 160 genitalia of Camels and cows were investigated in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria to compare bacterial isolates and the antibacterial susceptibilities of some of the isolates. Streptococcus (Str.) pyogenes (31%), Escherichia (E.) coli (24%) and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (20%) were the most common vaginal bacterial isolates in camels; while E. coli (73%), Str. pyogenes (18%) and S. aureus (11%) were the most frequent isolates in the cows. Of the 78 uterine isolates recovered in this study, E. coli was the most prominent in camels (8%) and cows (54%). The overall weight of genital infection in all camels and cows examined was highest (P < 0.05) with E. coli (79%), but there was no difference (P > 0.05) between vaginal and uterine bacterial isolates from camels and cows in this study. The Relative Risk (RR) for an infection of the vagina with E coli (3.04, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.104 to 4.398, P < 0.0001) is more in cows compared to the camel, but the RR for vaginal infection with S. aureus and Str. pyogenes were lower in cows compared to Camels. The E. coli and S. aureus isolates were highly susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested. Therefore effective management of reproductive disorders associated with these pathogens can be achieved with proper use of these antimicrobial agents in these animal species.
    SpringerPlus 01/2014; 3:91.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
599 Downloads
Available from
May 26, 2014