Article

Postpartum uterine infection in cattle.

Department of Surgery and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
Animal Reproduction Science (Impact Factor: 1.58). 06/2008; 105(3-4):187-208. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.01.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Postpartum uterine infections results from uterine contamination with bacteria during parturition. The prevalence of uterine infections varies considerably among studies. Uterine infection implies adherence of pathogenic organisms to the mucosa, colonization or penetration of the epithelium, and/or release of bacterial toxins that lead to establishment of uterine disease. The development of uterine disease depends on the immune response of the cow, as well as the species and number (load or challenge) of bacteria. The postpartum uterus has a disrupted surface epithelium in contact with fluid and tissue debris that can support bacterial growth. A variety of species of bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes, can be isolated from the early postpartum uterus. Most of these are environmental contaminants that are gradually eliminated during the first 6 weeks postpartum. A normal postpartum cow resolves uterine infection by rapid involution of the uterus and cervix, discharge of uterine content, and mobilization of natural host defenses, including mucus, antibodies and phagocytic cells. Clinical signs of uterine infection vary with the virulence of the causative organisms and the presence of factors that predispose to the disease. The treatment of endometritis and metritis in bovine should be directed towards improving fertility. The antibiotic should be active against the main uterine pathogens and should maintain its activity in the environment of the uterus. Also, should not inhibit the normal defense mechanisms and should be well tolerated and not induce irritation in the endometrium. Effective use of hormones in uterine infection requires knowledge of both normal reproductive endocrinology and the therapeutic characteristics of available hormonal preparations.

8 Bookmarks
 · 
1,402 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to estimate the association between detailed reproductive phenotypes for cows categorized as divergent for phenotypic and genetic performance. The hypothesis was that higher yielding animals, either phenotypically or genetically, would have compromised ovarian and uterine reproductive performance. Detailed reproductive traits including multiple ovulations, cystic ovarian structures, CL presence, and uterine environment were available on 9,675 ultrasound records from 8,174 dairy lactating cows, calved between 10 and 70 days. Cows were categorized, within parity, into low, average, or high for each of the performance traits. There was a greater likelihood of multiple ovulations in cows with greater phenotypic yields (odds ratio: 1.53 to 1.81) and greater genetic merit for yield (odds ratio: 1.31 to 1.59) relative to lower performing contemporaries. Following adjustment for genetic merit, a similar trend of increased odds (odds ratio: 1.29 to 1.87) of multiple ovulations in higher yield cows was observed compared to the lowest yielding category. There was no association between phenotypic milk composition or genetic merit for milk composition on the likelihood of multiple ovulations. The likelihood of cystic ovarian structures was highest in cows with greatest phenotypic milk yields (Odds ratio: 2.75 to 3.24), greater genetic merit for milk yields (Odds ratio: 1.30 to 1.51) and even after adjustment for genetic merit there was a greater likelihood of cystic ovarian structures in cows with the highest milk yields (Odds ratio: 2.71 to 2.95), compared to cows in the lowest category for each of the milk traits. Cows with average phenotypic milk yields were more likely to have a corpus luteum (CL), compared to the lowest yielding category (Odds ratio: 1.20 to 1.23) and these associations remained after adjustment for genetic merit of the trait. The likelihood of CL presence was highest in cows with the lowest genetic merit for milk. Lowest fat:protein ratio was associated with an increased likelihood of CL presence compared to cows with greater fat:protein ratio and cows with the highest phenotypic milk composition were more likely to have a CL compared to cows with the lowest composition category. Genetic predisposition to higher somatic cell score was associated with a reduced risk of multiple ovulations (Odds ratio: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.87) but an increased likelihood of CL presence (Odds ratio: 2.66; 95% CI: 2.09 to 3.37) and poorer uterine health score (Odds ratio: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.55). There was a lower likelihood of multiple ovulations, cystic ovarian structures, and poorer uterine health and an increased likelihood of CL presence in cows with superior genetic merit for reproductive performance and survival.
    Theriogenology 08/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate effects of bee venom (Apis mellifera L.) on the calving, reproductive efficiency of Hanwoo dams and the growth performance and disease occurrence of calves. Eighty seven experimental dams were allocated into two groups, bee venom treated (n=53, BV) and non-treated (n=34, control) of Hanwoo dams in Icheon, Kyonggi province. Calving period () and percentages of retained placenta (7.5%) in BV was shortened compared to control (, 14.7%, respectively. P>0.05). Post-placenta periods was similar between two groups (P>0.05). Postpartum days () to first estrus and calving interval () were shortened compared to control (, , respectively) but have not significantly affected (P>0.05). Body weights () and average daily gains (0.62) of calves before 30 days old in BV were significantly higher than control (, 0.52, respectively). The occurrence of respiratory disease and diarrhea in BV was relatively lower compared with Control. The present results indicate that bee venom may affect reproductive efficiency of dams and growth performance of calves.
    Korean Journal of Veterinary Service. 01/2010; 33(3).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute puerperal metritis (APM) is an acute systemic illness with fever ≥39.5°C and signs of toxemia due to an infection of the uterus occurring within 21 d after parturition. Because of the infectious nature of APM, antibiotics are considered beneficial for its treatment. Each use of an antimicrobial drug, however, is associated with selective pressure for the emergence of resistant bacteria. Hence, there is a significant need to encourage prudent use of antibiotics and alternative therapies to antibiotics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review the current literature on treatment of APM. A comprehensive and systematic literature search was conducted utilizing the PubMed and CAB Abstracts databases to identify literature focusing on the antibiotic therapy of puerperal metritis in the cow. After application of specific exclusion criteria, 21 publications comprising 23 trials remained for final evaluation. Data extraction revealed that the majority of the studies (n = 19) were attributable to the highest evidence level. Of 21 studies controlled, 11 had an untreated group and 3 a positive control group. The majority of the studies (n = 17) applied ceftiofur for the treatment of APM. Concerning the efficacy of ceftiofur, 7 studies observed clinical improvement, whereas none found improved reproductive performance. Fewer than half of the studies (n = 10) performed a bacteriological examination and only 4 implemented an antibiotic susceptibility test. Also, 3 studies (13.0%) described a self-cure rate per se. Little attention was given to the issue of bacterial resistance (n = 3), the need for reducing the application of antibiotics (n = 2), or guidelines for prudent use of antibiotics (n = 1). Our findings demonstrate that implementation of bacteriological examinations, sensitivity testing, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations, as well as reporting and discussion of critical issues (e.g., self-cure rates, resistance, prudent drug use), were suboptimal. On the other hand, the quality of studies on the treatment of APM was good, as indicated by evidence level 1. Nevertheless, more high-quality research considering self-cure rates is necessary to address critical issues related to APM and crucial to the dairy industry, such as resistance, prudent use of antibiotics, animal welfare, and cost-benefit ratios.
    Journal of Dairy Science 09/2014; · 2.55 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
702 Downloads
Available from
May 26, 2014