Source identification of PCDD/Fs in agricultural soils near to a Chinese MSWI plant through isomer-specific data analysis
Institute for Thermal Power Engineering of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 05/2008; 71(6):1144-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.10.032
Isomer-specific data were investigated in order to identify the sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in agricultural soils, including Fluvo-aquic and paddy soils, in the vicinity of a Chinese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. Homologue and isomer profiles of PCDD/Fs in soils were compared with those of potential sources, including combustion sources, i.e., MSWI flue gas and fly ash; and the impurities in agrochemicals, such as the pentachlorophenol (PCP), sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na) and 1,3,5-trichloro-2-(4-nitrophenoxy) benzene (CNP). The results showed that the PCDD/F isomer profiles of combustion sources and agricultural soils were very similar, especially for PCDFs, although their homologue profiles varied, indicating that all the isomers within each homologue behave identically in the air and soil. Moreover, factor analysis of the isomer compositions among 33 soil samples revealed that the contamination of PCDD/Fs in agricultural soils near the MSWI plant were primarily influenced by the combustion sources, followed by the PCP/PCP-Na and CNP sources. This implication is consistent with our previous findings based on chemometric analysis of homologue profiles of soil and flue gas samples, and identifies PCP/PCP-Na as an additional important source of PCDD/Fs in the local area. This makes the similarities and differences of isomer profiles between Fluvo-aquic and paddy soils more explainable. It is, therefore, advisable to use isomer-specific data for PCDD/F source identifications where possible.
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ABSTRACT: The emission of dioxins from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) has become a widespread concern. The effect of meteorological parameters (wind speed, atmospheric stability and mixing height) on the hourly ground level concentration (GLC) of dioxins was estimated using air dispersion models. Moreover, the health risks of dioxin exposure were evaluated for children and adults using the Nouwen equation. The total environmental exposure via air inhalation and food ingestion was calculated, based on linear fit equations. The results indicate that potentially severe pollution from dioxins occurs at a wind speed of 1.5 m/s with atmospheric stability class F. In addition, local residents in the study area are exposed to severe weather conditions most of the time, and the risk exposures for children are far higher than those for adults. The total exposure for children far exceeds the tolerable daily intake of dioxin recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 1–4 pg TEQ/(kg·d) under severe weather conditions. Results from modeling calculations of health risk assessment were consistent with dioxin levels obtained during actual monitoring of emissions.Journal of Zhejiang University - Science A: Applied Physics & Engineering 01/2012; 13(1). DOI:10.1631/jzus.A1100201 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The temporal variations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in 33 agricultural soil samples in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Eastern China were determined one year after the initial investigation in 2006. The soil PCDD/F concentrations in 2007 ranged from 73.6 to 377 ng kg(-1) (0.60-6.38 ng I-TEQ kg(-1)). During 2006-2007, the overall soil PCDD/F levels increased significantly, i.e., 33% and 39% for total concentration and I-TEQ (median value), respectively. Moreover, soils in the study area are proved to be almost free from previously suspected PCDD/F sources, i.e., pentachlorophenol/sodium penta-chlorophenate (PCP/PCP-Na) and 1,3,5-trichloro-2-(4-nitrophenoxy) benzene (CNP) contaminations. Furthermore, the results from a congener-specific factor analysis between soils (collected in two investigations) and dioxin emission sources suggest that diffuse sources including open burning of wastes, traffic and hot water boilers are major contributors that are responsible for the accumulation of PCDD/Fs in soils. By contrast, the impact of the presumably major PCDD/F source identified in our previous study, i.e., the MSWI, seems to be limited.Journal of hazardous materials 12/2008; 166(2-3):628-34. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.11.072 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chiral substances possess a unique architecture such that, despite sharing identical molecular formulas, atom-to-atom linkages, and bonding distances, they cannot be superimposed. Thus, in the environment of living systems, where specific structure-activity relationships may be required for effect (e.g., enzymes, receptors, transporters, and DNA), the physiochemical and biochemical properties of racemic mixtures and individual stereoisomers can differ significantly. In drug development, enantiomeric selection to maximize clinical effects or mitigate drug toxicity has yielded both success and failure. Further complicating genetic polymorphisms in drug disposition, stereoselective metabolism of chiral compounds can additionally influence pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicity. Optically pure pharmaceuticals may undergo racemization in vivo, negating single enantiomer benefits or inducing unexpected effects. Appropriate chiral antidotes must be selected for therapeutic benefit and to minimize adverse events. Enantiomers may possess different carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Environmental toxicology provides several examples in which compound bioaccumulation, persistence, and toxicity show chiral dependence. In forensic toxicology, chiral analysis has been applied to illicit drug preparations and biological specimens, with the potential to assist in determination of cause of death and aid in the correct interpretation of substance abuse and "doping" screens. Adrenergic agonists and antagonist, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, SSRIs, opioids, warfarin, valproate, thalidomide, retinoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, carnitine, penicillamine, leucovorin, glucarpidase, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, phenylethylamines, and additional compounds will be discussed to illustrate important concepts in "chiral toxicology."Toxicological Sciences 06/2009; 110(1):4-30. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfp097 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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