PTH regulation of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter.
ABSTRACT Secondary hyperparathyroidism and human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) seropositivity are highly prevalent in patients undergoing renal transplantation, and both are linked to the development of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). We investigated the hypothesis that parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-84 regulates hCMV immediate-early gene (IEG) promoter activation in proximal renal tubular cells. PTH 1-84 enhanced hCMV IEG promoter (-548 to +92) activity in opossum kidney cells. Deletion analysis from the 5' end of the promoter localized the PTH 1-84 associated activity to the DNA sequence between -123 and -45. Mutation of an imperfect ATF/AP-1 DNA element within this region abrogated the PTH 1-84 effect and also strongly attenuated basal gene expression. Mobility shift analyses using this DNA element revealed that a member of the ATF-1 family was in the binding complex. In summary, we present evidence for a novel pathogenic role of PTH 1-84 in promoting hCMV immediate-early gene transcription.
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ABSTRACT: The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) is one of the first promoters to activate upon infection. To examine HCMV MIEP tissue-specific expression, transgenic mice were established containing the lacZ gene regulated by the MIEP (nucleotides -670 to +54). In the transgenic mice, lacZ expression was demonstrated in 19 of 29 tissues tested by histochemical and immunochemical analyses. These tissues included brain, eye, spinal cord, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, kidney, bladder, testis, ovary, spleen, salivary gland, thymus, bone marrow, skin, cartilage, and cardiac, striated and smooth muscles. Although expression was observed in multiple organs, promoter activity was restricted to specific cell types. The cell types which demonstrated HCMV MIEP expression included retinal cells of the eye, ductile cells of the salivary gland, exocrine cells of the pancreas, mucosal cells of the stomach and intestine, neuronal cells of the brain, muscle fibers, thecal cells of the corpus luteum, and Leydig and sperm cells of the testis. These observations indicate that the HCMV MIEP is not a pan-specific promoter and that the majority of expressing tissues correlate with tissues naturally infected by the virus in the human host.Journal of Virology 06/1996; 70(5):3207-14. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The natural history of parathyroid function after successful renal transplantation (RT) and the factors predisposing to persistent hyperparathyroidism (HPT) are not well established. A better knowledge of these data may be helpful in the development of algorithms for optimal surveillance and treatment of HPT after successful RT. Our aim was to evaluate the post-transplant natural history of parathyroid function and calcium metabolism in patients with a functional renal graft and to identify risk factors for persistent HPT. Charts of 1165 allograft kidney recipients transplanted between 1989 and 2000 were reviewed. Patients with an intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level available at the time of transplantation were identified. The charts of the latter patients were checked for a variety of demographic and clinical data, and all determinations of the iPTH concentration available since transplantation were recorded. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatases and creatinine, concurrently determined, were also registered. After an initial fall, iPTH levels showed a slow but steady decline towards the upper normal limit. The prevalence of persistent HPT, defined as an iPTH level > or =2.5 times the upper normal limit or the need for parathyroidectomy following transplantation, remained stable at approximately 17% up to 4 years after transplantation. Patients with persistent HPT had significantly elevated serum levels of iPTH, calcium and phosphorus at the time of RT, and had spent a longer time on dialysis. Post-transplant iPTH levels correlated significantly with transplant kidney function. Kidney transplant recipients with a high iPTH and calcium x phosphate product at the time of transplantation are at risk for persistent HPT especially when renal function is suboptimal. Therapy for persistent HPT, if considered, should be initiated 3 months post-transplantation since further spontaneous improvement of parathyroid function thereafter is limited.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 05/2004; 19(5):1281-7. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Persistent hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is observed in approximately 50% of kidney transplant recipients one year after transplantation. It may result in hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, bone demineralization, vascular calcification, lithiasis, and participate in chronic allograft nephropathy. We evaluated the use of the calcimimetic cinacalcet chloride to correct chronic hypercalcemia in posttransplant HPT, in a prospective single-center study. Nine patients with persistent hypercalcemia (>2.6 mmol/L) and stable graft function were treated with cinacalcet (30 mg/day, thereafter adapted to obtain normal serum Ca levels) for six months. Their immunosuppressive schedule included mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), steroids, and cyclosporine A (4), tacrolimus (4), or sirolimus (2). Serum Ca levels significantly decreased from 2.75+/-0.15 to 2.59+/-0.10, 2.42+/-0.29 and 2.44+/-0.25 mmol/L by one, two, and six months, respectively (P<0.02, Wilcoxon test for paired data, for all the data points). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum levels decreased from 171+/-102 to 134+/-63 pg/ml by two months (P<0.05) and stabilized thereafter (148+/-99 pg/ml at six months; NS). No changes in glomerular filtration rate (49.8+/-18.6 and 51.3+/-19 ml/min at initiation and six months, respectively) and no variation in serum concentration of the immunosuppressive drugs were observed. Three patients withdrew the treatment because gastrointestinal intolerance. Cinacalcet allows the correction of hypercalcemia with no interference in immunosuppressive treatment or renal function. However, whether the increased intolerance observed was due to the association of cinacalcet chloride with other drugs required in renal transplantation (e.g., MMF) needs to be assessed.Transplantation 09/2006; 82(5):675-80. · 3.78 Impact Factor