NLR, the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing gene family.
ABSTRACT The NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) family is found in plants and animals, and serves as crucial regulators of inflammatory and innate immune response, though its functions are likely to extend greatly beyond innate immunity, and even beyond the immune system. This review discusses recent findings regarding the function of NLR proteins in the control of IL-1, NF-kappaB, and host response to pathogens including distinct forms of cell death. The review also covers recent advances regarding the biochemical nature of NLRs, its regulation by intracellular nucleotides and extracellular ATP, by the chaperone protein HSP90, and the ubiquitin ligase-associated protein SGT1. Its role in inflammation is linked to the formation of biochemical complexes such as the inflammasome, and its roles in cell death might be linked to the proposed formation of pyroptosome and necrosome.
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ABSTRACT: Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus; HE) polysaccharides (HE-PS) have been shown to have immunomodulatory activity. We found that the bioactive components of beta-glucan derivatives consisted of 20% in HE-PS. We used an analytic platform for investigating the effects of HE-PS on the maturation of rat dendritic cells (DCs), which are derived from rat bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHCs). The results showed that treatment with 50 mu g/mL HE-PS changed the morphology of the DCs to an active form in parallel with a significant two fold increase in MHC class II and CD80/86 surface antigens compared to the control. Furthermore, endocytosis by the DCs was significantly reduced at the same dosage. IL-12, IFN-gamma and IL-10 cytokine secretion was significantly increased by 2.7, 1.5 and 1.6-fold, respectively, compared to the control after treatment with 50 mu g/mL of HE-PS. This study used a powered analysis platform to show that HE-PS induces DCs activation and modulates the T(H)1 immune response. Thus, HE-PS has potential as an immunopotentiating agent that could be further developed in the health food industry.PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY 09/2013; 48(9):1402-1408. DOI:10.1016/j.procbio.2013.06.012 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a hallmark of aging. Caloric restriction and resveratrol (RSV) have shown important effects on prevention of oxidative stress and inflammation. Here, we investigate the progression of proinflammatory markers in liver during aging and the effect of RSV on inflammation markers in liver of old male C57BL/6J mice. Young (2 months), mature (12 months) and old (18 months) mice were fed during 6 months with RSV. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and TNF-α were evaluated by ELISA in mice liver. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α and also their respective mRNA increased in liver from old mice. However, RSV decreased these levels in the case of IL-1β and TNF-α but only in old mice showing no effect on young and mature animals. This reduction was also found at the mRNA level. Levels of mRNA of the components of NALP-3 inflammasome, ASC, CASP-1, NALP-1 and NALP-3, also showed an age-dependent increase that was reversed by RSV. Furthermore, cyclooxygenase 2 levels, a marker of proinflammatory innate immune activity, were also upregulated in aged liver and reversed again by RSV. In conclusion, our study confirms that aging is accompanied by an increase in the proinflammatory pattern in liver and that RSV reduces this pattern in old mice liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Experimental Gerontology 02/2015; 64. DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2015.02.004 · 3.53 Impact Factor
Article: NEONATAL INNATE IMMUNITY