NLR, the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing gene family.

Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7295, United States.
Current Opinion in Immunology (Impact Factor: 7.87). 03/2008; 20(1):3-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.coi.2008.01.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) family is found in plants and animals, and serves as crucial regulators of inflammatory and innate immune response, though its functions are likely to extend greatly beyond innate immunity, and even beyond the immune system. This review discusses recent findings regarding the function of NLR proteins in the control of IL-1, NF-kappaB, and host response to pathogens including distinct forms of cell death. The review also covers recent advances regarding the biochemical nature of NLRs, its regulation by intracellular nucleotides and extracellular ATP, by the chaperone protein HSP90, and the ubiquitin ligase-associated protein SGT1. Its role in inflammation is linked to the formation of biochemical complexes such as the inflammasome, and its roles in cell death might be linked to the proposed formation of pyroptosome and necrosome.

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