Our previous work has shown that methylseleninic acid (MSeA) sensitized hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPCa) cells to apoptosis induced by paclitaxel (Taxol) through enhancing multiple caspases. This study aimed to (a) determine the general applicability of the sensitization effect for taxane drugs in vitro, (b) establish the enhancement of paclitaxel efficacy by MSeA in vivo, and (c) investigate Bcl-XL and survivin as molecular targets of MSeA to augment apoptosis. Experimental design: DU145 and PC-3 HRPCa cell lines were used to evaluate the in vitro apoptosis effects of paclitaxel, docetaxel and their combination with MSeA, and the molecular mechanisms. DU145 xenograft growth in athymic nude mice was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of paclitaxel and its combination with MSeA. The tumor samples were used to examine Bcl-XL and survivin protein abundance.
MSeA combination with paclitaxel or docetaxel exerted a greater than additive apoptosis effect on DU145 and PC-3 cells. In nude mice, paclitaxel and MSeA combination inhibited growth of DU145 subcutaneous xenograft with the equivalent efficacy of a four-time higher dose of paclitaxel alone. MSeA decreased the basal and paclitaxel-induced expression of Bcl-XL and survivin in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of Bcl-XL or survivin attenuated MSeA/paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.
MSeA enhanced the efficacy of paclitaxel against HRPCa in vitro and in vivo, at least in part, by down-regulating the basal and paclitaxel-induced expression of both Bcl-XL and survivin to increase caspase-mediated apoptosis. MSeA may be a novel agent to improve taxane combination therapy.
"Table 1 provides an overview of the effects of various selenium forms and chemotherapeutic drug combinations in specific cell lines in vitro , , , , , , , , . The effects summarized include a combination index (CI) between the two substances, if reported, and when no CI was reported an account of either a positive or negative impact on neoplastic cell growth from the combination. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium is a natural health product widely used in the treatment and prevention of lung cancers, but large chemoprevention trials have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review of selenium for lung cancers, and assessed potential interactions with conventional therapies.
Two independent reviewers searched six databases from inception to March 2009 for evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of selenium for lung cancers. Pubmed and EMBASE were searched to October 2009 for evidence on interactions with chemo- or radiation-therapy. In the efficacy analysis there were nine reports of five RCTs and two biomarker-based studies, 29 reports of 26 observational studies, and 41 preclinical studies. Fifteen human studies, one case report, and 36 preclinical studies were included in the interactions analysis. Based on available evidence, there appears to be a different chemopreventive effect dependent on baseline selenium status, such that selenium supplementation may reduce risk of lung cancers in populations with lower baseline selenium status (serum<106 ng/mL), but increase risk of lung cancers in those with higher selenium (≥ 121.6 ng/mL). Pooling data from two trials yielded no impact to odds of lung cancer, OR 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.43); other cancers that were the primary endpoints of these trials, OR 1.51 (95%CI 0.70-3.24); and all-cause-death, OR 0.93 (95%CI 0.79-1.10). In the treatment of lung cancers, selenium may reduce cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and side effects associated with radiation therapy.
Selenium may be effective for lung cancer prevention among individuals with lower selenium status, but at present should not be used as a general strategy for lung cancer prevention. Although promising, more evidence on the ability of selenium to reduce cisplatin and radiation therapy toxicity is required to ensure that therapeutic efficacy is maintained before any broad clinical recommendations can be made in this context.
PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e26259. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026259 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenocystine (SeC) is a nutritionally available selenoamino acid with selective anticancer effects on a number of human cancer cell lines. The present study shows that SeC inhibited the proliferation of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. SeC-induced S-phase arrest was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of cyclins A, D1, and D3 and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6, with concomitant induction of p21waf1/Cip1, p27Kip1, and p53. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to SeC resulted in apoptosis as evidenced by caspase activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation. SeC treatment also triggered the activation of JNK, p38 MAPK, ERK, and Akt. Inhibitors of ERK (U0126) and Akt (LY294002), but not JNK (SP600125) and p38 MAPK (SB203580), suppressed SeC-induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. The findings establish a mechanistic link between the PI3K/Akt pathway, MAPK pathway, and SeC-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2008; 56(22):10574-81. DOI:10.1021/jf802125t · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To discuss recent research related to anticarcinogenic mechanisms of selenium action in light of the underlying chemical/biochemical functions of the selenium species, likely to be executors of those effects.
Recent studies in a variety of model systems have increased the understanding of the anticarcinogenic mechanisms of selenium compounds. These include effects on gene expression, DNA damage and repair, signaling pathways, regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, metastasis and angiogenesis. These effects would appear to be related to the production of reactive oxygen species produced by the redox cycling, modification of protein-thiols and methionine mimicry. Three principle selenium metabolites appear to execute these effects: hydrogen selenide, methylselenol and selenomethionine. The fact that various selenium compounds can be metabolized to one or more of these species but differ in anticarcinogenic activity indicates competing pathways of their metabolic and chemical/biochemical disposition. Increasing knowledge of selenoprotein polymorphisms has shown that at least some are related to cancer risk and may affect carcinogenesis indirectly by influencing selenium metabolism.
The anticarcinogenic effects of selenium compounds constitute intermediate mechanisms with several underlying chemical/biochemical mechanisms such as redox cycling, alteration of protein-thiol redox status and methionine mimicry.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 12/2008; 11(6):718-26. DOI:10.1097/MCO.0b013e3283139674 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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