Article

Depression, antidepressants, and peripheral blood components.

Department of Psychiatry, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
Neuro endocrinology letters (Impact Factor: 0.94). 03/2008; 29(1):17-28.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The biological attributes of affective disorders and factors which are able to predict a response to treatment with antidepressants have not been identified sufficiently. A number of biochemical variables in peripheral blood constituents have been tested for this purpose, as a consequence of the lack of availability of human brain tissue. At first, the biological attributes of mental disorders were sought at the level of concentrations of neurotransmitters and their metabolites or precursors. Later on, attention shifted to receptor systems. Since the 1990s, intracellular processes influenced by an illness or its treatment with psychopharmaceuticals have been at the forefront of interest. Interest in biological predictors of treatment with antidepressants has reappeared in recent years, thanks to new laboratory techniques which make it possible to monitor cellular processes associated with the transmission of nerve signals in the brain. These processes can also be studied in plasma and blood elements, especially lymphocytes and platelets. The selection of the qualities to which attention is paid can be derived from today's most widely discussed biochemical hypotheses of affective disorders, especially the monoamine hypothesis and the molecular and cellular theory of depression. Mitochondrial enzymes can also play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression and the effects of antidepressants. In this paper, we sum up the cellular, neurochemical, neuroendocrine, genetic, and neuroimmunological qualities which can be measured in peripheral blood and which appear to be indicators of affective disorders, or parameters which make it possible to predict therapeutic responses to antidepressant administration.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
125 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depression is one of the major global health challenges and a leading contributor of health related disability and costs. Depression is a heterogeneous disorder and current methods for assessing its severity in clinical practice rely on symptom count, however this approach is unreliable and inconsistent. The clinical evaluation of depressive symptoms is particularly challenging in primary care, where the majority of patients with depression are managed, due to the presence of co-morbidities. Current methods for risk assessment of depression do not accurately predict treatment response or clinical outcomes. Several biological pathways have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression; however, accurate and predictive biomarkers remain elusive. We conducted a systematic review of the published evidence supporting the use of peripheral biomarkers to predict outcomes in depression, using Medline and Embase. Peripheral biomarkers in depression were found to be statistically significant predictors of mental health outcomes such as treatment response, poor outcome and symptom remission; and physical health outcomes such as increased incidence of cardiovascular events and deaths, and all-cause mortality. However, the available evidence has multiple methodological limitations which must be overcome to make any real clinical progress. Despite extensive research on the relationship of depression with peripheral biomarkers, its translational application in practice remains uncertain. In future, peripheral biomarkers identified with novel techniques and combining multiple biomarkers may have a potential role in depression risk assessment but further research is needed in this area.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 02/2015; 9:18. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00018 · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play critical roles in neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity and memory and participate in the pathophysiology of both depressive disorder and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study was designed to determine the association of GSK3β activity, CREB activity and BDNF concentration in peripheral blood of patients with AD with or without depressive symptoms and in depressive patients without AD. GSK3β activity in platelets, CREB activity in lymphocytes and BDNF concentration in plasma, platelet-rich plasma or platelets were measured in 85AD patients (36 of whom displayed co-morbid depressive symptoms), 65 non-AD patients with depressive disorder and 96 healthy controls. AD patients were clinically assessed for stage of dementia, cognitive impairment and severity of depressive symptoms. Depressive patients were clinically assessed for severity of depression. We observed increased CREB and GSK3β activity in AD with depressive symptoms or in AD at mild stage of dementia. Decreased BDNF concentration was found in platelet-rich plasma of AD patients at moderate to severe stages of dementia or in AD without depressive symptoms. An association was revealed of the severity of cognitive impairment with the increase of GSK3β in the platelets of AD patients with mild dementia. In depressive patients, a lower concentration of phosphorylated GSK3β was associated with a higher severity of depression. Association was confirmed between severity of depression, CREB activation, and BDNF concentration in drug-naïve depressive patients. Our data demonstrated that AD is accompanied by increased CREB activity in lymphocytes and a decreased concentration of BDNF in platelet-rich plasma. The decreased BDNF concentration appears to correlate with moderate to severe stages of dementia in AD. Observation of decreased phosphorylation of GSK3β in platelets of both AD patients with depressive symptoms and depressive patients after treatment confirms the role of increased GSK3β activity in the pathophysiology of both AD and depressive disorder. Associations were confirmed between AD and platelet GSK3β activity, lymphocyte CREB activity and plasma BDNF. CREB activity and platelet BDNF concentration seems to be related to depressive disorder.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.12.001 · 4.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent modulators of protein expression that play key roles in brain pathways regulating neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. These small RNAs may be critical for the pathophysiology of mental disorders and may influence the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in the mechanism of action of antidepressants (AD), we conducted a whole-miRNome quantitative analysis with qRT-PCR of the changes in the blood of 10 depressed subjects after 12 weeks of treatment with escitalopram. Thirty miRNAs were differentially expressed after the AD treatment: 28 miRNAs were up-regulated, and 2 miRNAs were strongly down-regulated. miRNA target gene prediction and functional annotation analysis showed that there was a significant enrichment in several pathways associated with neuronal brain function (such as neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, axon guidance, long-term potentiation and depression), supporting the hypothesis that the differentially regulated miRNAs may be involved in the AD mechanism.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2012.06.013 · 3.68 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
78 Downloads
Available from
May 16, 2014