To develop items to measure indoor tanning and sunless tanning that can be used to monitor trends in population surveys or to assess changes in behavior in intervention studies.
A group of experts on indoor tanning convened in December 2005, as part of a national workshop to review the state of the evidence, define measurement issues, and develop items for ever tanned indoors, lifetime frequency, and past-year frequency for both indoor tanning and sunless tanning. Each item was subsequently assessed via in-person interviews for clarity, specificity, recall, and appropriateness of wording.
Universities in Tennessee and Virginia, a medical center in Massachusetts, and a high school in New Hampshire.
The study population comprised 24 adults and 7 adolescents.
Participants understood indoor tanning to represent tanning from beds, booths, and lamps that emit artificial UV radiation, rather than sunless tanning, even though both can be obtained from a booth. Two items were required to distinguish manually applied from booth-applied sunless tanning products. Frequency of use was easier for participants to recall in the past year than for a lifetime.
While indoor tanning items may be recommended with confidence for clarity, sunless tanning items require additional testing. Memory aids may be necessary to facilitate recall of lifetime use of nonsolar tanning. In addition, studies that assess reliability and validity of these measures are needed. Since study participants were primarily young and female, testing in other populations should also be considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered histamine metabolism is thought to be involved in the pathomechanism of nasal polyposis characterized by local eosinophil infiltration. The present study was performed to determine whether histamine receptors play a role in the effect of histamine in nasal polyp tissue. The findings suggest that the expression of H1 and H4 receptors is elevated in polyp tissue (p=0.045; p<0.001), while the level of H2 and H3 receptors is not increased significantly. The elevation of H1 and H4 receptors' expression may indicate that the histamine related mechanisms are preferentially mediated through H1 and H4 histamine receptors in the polyp tissue. Simultaneously with increased H4 receptor expression, the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was increased significantly in polyp tissue (p=0.002). One may speculate that the H4 receptor mediated histamine effects have a role in eosinophil accumulation and activation in inflammatory diseases of the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa, such as nasal polyposis.
Cell Biology International 11/2007; 31(11):1367-70. DOI:10.1016/j.cellbi.2007.05.011 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare knowledge, attitudes, and behavior about indoor tanning and sources of information among young adults in the summer of 1988, 1994, and 2007.
Convenience survey of 100 Chicago, Illinois, beachgoers aged 18 to 30 years who were age- and sex-matched with Chicago-area residents who participated in random-digit-dialed telephone interviews in 1988 and 1994.
Lakefront beach on weekday afternoons in July 2007.
Knowledge of melanoma/skin cancer link with tanning, and limiting tanning to help prevent melanoma/skin cancer; attitude about the appearance of tanned people; and knowledge of relevant information sources; and UV indoor tanning use in the past year.
Knowledge of the melanoma/skin cancer link with tanning changed from 1988 (42%) to 1994 (38%) to 2007 (87%). Knowledge of limiting tanning to help prevent melanoma increased from 1988 (25%) to 1994 (77%), but decreased from 1994 to 2007 (67%). This decline in knowledge about limiting tanning was concurrent with an increase in the attitude that having a tan looks better (1994, 69%; 2007, 81%). Use of indoor tanning beds increased from 1988 (1%) to 1994 (26%) and remained at the same level in 2007 (27%). Although physicians, especially dermatologists, were sources of information about tanning (1988, 2%; 1994, 18%; 2007, 31%) and were considered the most trusted source, only 14% of respondents in 1994 and 2007 reported ever talking to a doctor about indoor tanning. Conclusion Because young adults report that physicians are their most trusted source of information about tanning, a potential opportunity exists for physicians to influence indoor tanning behavior by counseling their patients.
Archives of dermatology 05/2008; 144(4):484-8. DOI:10.1001/archderm.144.4.484 · 4.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survey research has been used to investigate a wide range of issues in dermatology. The proper use of survey design and analysis is critical for achieving reliable, accurate data and high impact in the medical literature. Here we describe the use of surveys from both a theoretical and practical standpoint. We provide recommendations for limiting error and producing interpretable results, followed by an outline for achieving publication. We conclude with a discussion of previous successful uses of survey studies in dermatologic literature.
Dermatologic clinics 05/2009; 27(2):121-31, vi. DOI:10.1016/j.det.2008.11.001 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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