Article

Jump starting skeletal health: a 4-year longitudinal study assessing the effects of jumping on skeletal development in pre and circum pubertal children.

Oregon State University, Bone Research Laboratory, Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, USA.
Bone (Impact Factor: 4.46). 05/2008; 42(4):710-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Evidence suggests bone mineral increases attributable to exercise training prior to puberty may confer a significant advantage into adulthood. However, there is a dearth of supportive prospective longitudinal data. The purpose of this study was to assess bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body (WB), total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) over four years in pre-pubertal boys and girls following a 7-month jumping intervention.
The study population included 107 girls and 98 boys aged 8.6+/-0.88 years at baseline. Participating schools were randomly assigned as either intervention or control school. Children at the intervention school (n=101) participated in a jumping intervention embedded within the standard PE curriculum. The control school children (n=104) had similar exposure to PE without the jumping intervention. BMC was assessed by DXA at baseline, at 7-month post intervention, and annually thereafter for three years totaling 5 measurement opportunities. Multi-level random effects models were constructed and used to predict change from study entry in BMC parameters at each measurement occasion.
A significant intervention effect was found at all bone sites. The effect was greatest immediately following the intervention (at 7 months) but still significant three years after the intervention. At 7 months, intervention participants had BMC values that were 7.9%, 8.4%, 7.7% and 7.3% greater than the controls at the LS, TH, FN and WB, respectively (p<0.05), when the confounders of age, maturity and tissue mass were controlled. Three years after the intervention had concluded the intervention group had 2.3%, 3.2%, 4.4% and 2.9% greater BMC than controls at the LS, TH, FN and WB respectively (p<0.05), when the confounders of age, maturity and tissue mass were controlled.
This provides evidence that short-term high impact exercise in pre-puberty has a persistent effect over and above the effects of normal growth and development. If the benefits are sustained until BMC plateaus in early adulthood, this could have substantial effects on fracture risk.

1 Bookmark
 · 
94 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of basketball practice on bone acquisition in the prepubertal age. In total, 48 prepubescent male basketball players aged 11.1 ± 0.8yr, Tanner stage 1, were compared with 50 controls matched for age and pubertal stage. Areal bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in deferent sites associated with anthropometric parameters were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Running and jumping tests were performed. Analysis of Student's impaired t-test revealed that basketball players attained better results in all physical fitness tests (p < 0.05). They also exhibited significantly greater BMC and BA in whole body, upper and lower extremities, trochanter, total hip, and whole right and left radius (p < 0.001) compared with the controls. No significant differences were observed between groups in right and left ultradistal and third distal radius and spinal regions, BMC, and BA, whereas a significant positive correlation was reported between lean mass, BMC, and BA of lower limbs. In summary, basketball practice in prepubertal age is associated with improved physical fitness and enhanced lean and bone mass in loaded sites.
    Journal of Clinical Densitometry 01/2014; 17(1):156-162. · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physical activity improves bone strength and reduces the risk for osteoporotic fractures. However, there are substantial gaps in our knowledge as to when, how and how much activity is optimal for bone health.
    British journal of sports medicine. 05/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and bone mineral content (BMC; gram) from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). Participants from the Iowa bone development study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 years (n = 369, 449, 452, 410, and 307, respectively). MVPA and VPA (minutes per day) were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kilogram), height (centimeter), linear age (year), non-linear age (year(2)), and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity). The interaction effects of PA × maturity and PA × age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile) and most (90th percentile) active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA, did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age neither modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 01/2014; 5:112.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
27 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014