Jump starting skeletal health: a 4-year longitudinal study assessing the effects of jumping on skeletal development in pre and circum pubertal children.
ABSTRACT Evidence suggests bone mineral increases attributable to exercise training prior to puberty may confer a significant advantage into adulthood. However, there is a dearth of supportive prospective longitudinal data. The purpose of this study was to assess bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body (WB), total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) over four years in pre-pubertal boys and girls following a 7-month jumping intervention.
The study population included 107 girls and 98 boys aged 8.6+/-0.88 years at baseline. Participating schools were randomly assigned as either intervention or control school. Children at the intervention school (n=101) participated in a jumping intervention embedded within the standard PE curriculum. The control school children (n=104) had similar exposure to PE without the jumping intervention. BMC was assessed by DXA at baseline, at 7-month post intervention, and annually thereafter for three years totaling 5 measurement opportunities. Multi-level random effects models were constructed and used to predict change from study entry in BMC parameters at each measurement occasion.
A significant intervention effect was found at all bone sites. The effect was greatest immediately following the intervention (at 7 months) but still significant three years after the intervention. At 7 months, intervention participants had BMC values that were 7.9%, 8.4%, 7.7% and 7.3% greater than the controls at the LS, TH, FN and WB, respectively (p<0.05), when the confounders of age, maturity and tissue mass were controlled. Three years after the intervention had concluded the intervention group had 2.3%, 3.2%, 4.4% and 2.9% greater BMC than controls at the LS, TH, FN and WB respectively (p<0.05), when the confounders of age, maturity and tissue mass were controlled.
This provides evidence that short-term high impact exercise in pre-puberty has a persistent effect over and above the effects of normal growth and development. If the benefits are sustained until BMC plateaus in early adulthood, this could have substantial effects on fracture risk.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a disorder in which loss of bone strength leads to fragility fractures. This review examines the fundamental pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this disorder, which include: (a) failure to achieve a skeleton of optimal strength during growth and development; (b) excessive bone resorption resulting in loss of bone mass and disruption of architecture; and (c) failure to replace lost bone due to defects in bone formation. Estrogen deficiency is known to play a critical role in the development of osteoporosis, while calcium and vitamin D deficiencies and secondary hyperparathyroidism also contribute. There are multiple mechanisms underlying the regulation of bone remodeling, and these involve not only the osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell lineages but also other marrow cells, in addition to the interaction of systemic hormones, local cytokines, growth factors, and transcription factors. Polymorphisms of a large number of genes have been associated with differences in bone mass and fragility. It is now possible to diagnose osteoporosis, assess fracture risk, and reduce that risk with antiresorptive or other available therapies. However, new and more effective approaches are likely to emerge from a better understanding of the regulators of bone cell function.Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/2006; 115(12):3318-25. · 12.81 Impact Factor
- Medizinische Monatsschrift für Pharmazeuten 06/2002; 25(5):164-7.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exercise in girls during growth seems to confer a high peak bone mineral density (BMD). Exercise in adulthood, in the peri- and postmenopausal period, and in old age prevents bone loss or increases BMD with a magnitude of minor biological significance. However, these changes must be regarded as beneficial compared to the age-related bone loss, which inevitably will occur if no interventions are implemented. Prospective intervention studies also suggest that exercise improves muscle strength, coordination and balance, even in elderly women, all of which are improvements with a potential of reducing the number of falls. A randomised, controlled, prospective, blinded study (the only study design that tests a hypothesis) of exercise with fracture as end point is extremely difficult to conduct, due to the large sample sizes needed. At present, no such studies exist. Retrospective and prospective observational and case-control studies suggest that physical activity in women is associated with reduced fracture risk. This may be correct, but we must never forget that a consistently replicated sampling bias may produce the same outcome. The Achilles heel of exercise is the reduction or the cessation of physical activity, which commonly occurs among middle-aged women when family and work demands reduce the time available for exercise. A higher BMD or improvement in muscle size and muscle strength achieved by exercise during adolescence seems to be eroded on retirement, leaving virtually no remaining benefits in old age, the period when fragility fractures begin to be a problem of increasing magnitude. However, recreational activities seem to maintain some of the musculo-skeletal benefits, but to date we do not know the level of activity needed to retain these benefits. Dose-response relationships need to be quantified, as also the effects on bone size, shape and architecture. Another essential question that we must address is how many fewer fractures will be the result of a community-based exercise campaign. Will efforts by the community to encourage a higher level of physical exercise, with the aim of reducing bone fractures, be cost-effective? The higher level of proof, suggesting that exercise does reduce fragility fractures and thus reduces the total cost for the society, must come from well-designed and well-executed, prospective, randomised, controlled trials. The responsibility of executing these studies lies in the hands of both researchers and the community.Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2004; 14(1):2-15. · 3.21 Impact Factor