Jump starting skeletal health: A 4-year longitudinal study assessing the effects of jumping on skeletal development in pre and circum pubertal children

Oregon State University, Bone Research Laboratory, Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, USA.
Bone (Impact Factor: 4.46). 05/2008; 42(4):710-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Evidence suggests bone mineral increases attributable to exercise training prior to puberty may confer a significant advantage into adulthood. However, there is a dearth of supportive prospective longitudinal data. The purpose of this study was to assess bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body (WB), total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) over four years in pre-pubertal boys and girls following a 7-month jumping intervention.
The study population included 107 girls and 98 boys aged 8.6+/-0.88 years at baseline. Participating schools were randomly assigned as either intervention or control school. Children at the intervention school (n=101) participated in a jumping intervention embedded within the standard PE curriculum. The control school children (n=104) had similar exposure to PE without the jumping intervention. BMC was assessed by DXA at baseline, at 7-month post intervention, and annually thereafter for three years totaling 5 measurement opportunities. Multi-level random effects models were constructed and used to predict change from study entry in BMC parameters at each measurement occasion.
A significant intervention effect was found at all bone sites. The effect was greatest immediately following the intervention (at 7 months) but still significant three years after the intervention. At 7 months, intervention participants had BMC values that were 7.9%, 8.4%, 7.7% and 7.3% greater than the controls at the LS, TH, FN and WB, respectively (p<0.05), when the confounders of age, maturity and tissue mass were controlled. Three years after the intervention had concluded the intervention group had 2.3%, 3.2%, 4.4% and 2.9% greater BMC than controls at the LS, TH, FN and WB respectively (p<0.05), when the confounders of age, maturity and tissue mass were controlled.
This provides evidence that short-term high impact exercise in pre-puberty has a persistent effect over and above the effects of normal growth and development. If the benefits are sustained until BMC plateaus in early adulthood, this could have substantial effects on fracture risk.

Download full-text


Available from: Adam Dominic George Baxter-Jones, Jul 02, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although there is strong and consistent evidence that childhood and adolescent physical activity is osteogenic, the evidence concerning its sustained effects to adult bone health is not conclusive. Therefore the value of interventions, in addition to beneficial bone adaptation, could be exposure to activities children enjoy and therefore continue. As such, interventions should provide skills, pleasure, and supportive environments to ensure continued bone-strengthening physical activity with age. Until the dose-response as well as timing of physical activity to bone health is more fully understood, it is sensible to assume that physical activity is needed throughout the lifespan to improve and maintain skeletal health. Current federal guidelines for health-related physical activity, which explicitly recommend bone-strengthening physical activities for youth, should also apply to adults.
    02/2015; 4(1):63-70. DOI:10.1123/kr.2014-0081
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous fracture may predispose an individual to bone fragility because of impaired bone mineral accrual. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the influence of fractures sustained during childhood and (or) adolescence on total body (TB), lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total hip (TH) bone mineral content (BMC) in young adulthood. It was hypothesized that there would be lower TB, LS, FN, and TH BMC in participants who had sustained a pediatric fracture. Participant anthropometrics, physical activity, and BMC (measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed longitudinally during childhood and adolescence (from 1991 to 1997), and again in young adulthood (2002 to 2006). Sex, adult height, adult lean mass, adult physical activity, and adolescent BMC adjusted TB, LS, FN, and TH BMC in young adulthood, for those who reported 1 or more fractures (n = 42), were compared with those who reported no fractures (n = 101). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in adjusted BMC between fracture and nonfracture groups at the TB, LS, FN, and TH sites in young adulthood. These results suggest that fractures sustained during childhood and adolescence may not interfere with bone mass in young adulthood at clinically relevant bone sites.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 05/2010; 35(3):235-43. DOI:10.1139/H10-011 · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Source