Hospital, radiology, and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems

Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA.
Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound (Impact Factor: 1.45). 02/2008; 49(1 Suppl 1):S19-28. DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-8261.2007.00329.x
Source: PubMed


Images generated during the course of patient evaluation and management are an integral part of the medical record and must be retained according to local regulations. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) makes it possible for images from many different imaging modalities to be distributed via a standard internet network to distant viewing workstations and a central archive in an almost seamless fashion. The DICOM standard is a truly universal standard for the dissemination of medical images. Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS) refers to the infrastructure that links modalities, workstations, the image archive, and the medical record information system into an integrated system, allowing for efficient electronic distribution and storage of medical images and access to medical record data. This paper discusses the important elements to a successful PACS implementation in a practice, including how it interacts with other practice computing systems.

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    ABSTRACT: The elements of a digital imaging system are bound together by the network, so careful attention must be paid to this essential component. Networking hardware and cable choice will affect the speed of image transmission between devices within a network. Wireless networking offers convenience at the expense of speed and potentially, security. If a facility allows its network to connect to the Internet, security precautions are essential. Firewalls prevent unauthorized and destructive access to the network; virtual private networks allow encrypted communication with the network; and email and web browser encryption allow data transmitted from the network to other users on the Internet safely. This article presents an overview of this broad array of technologies. Readers are encouraged to seek additional depth as needed to address individual networking needs.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 01/2008; 49(1 Suppl 1):S29-32. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2007.00330.x · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Use of digital radiography is growing rapidly in veterinary medicine. Two basic digital imaging systems are available, computed radiography (CR) and direct digital radiography (DDR). Computed radiographic detectors use a two-step process for image capture and processing. Image capture is by X-ray sensitive phosphors in the image plate. The image plate reader transforms the latent phosphor image to light photons that are converted to an analog electrical signal. An analog to digital converter is used to digitize the electrical signal before computer analysis. Direct digital detectors provide digital data by direct readout after image capture--a reader unnecessary. Types of DDR detectors are flat panel detectors and charge coupled device (CCD) detectors. Flat panel detectors are composed of layers of semiconductors for image capture with transistor and microscopic circuitry embedded in a pixel array. Direct converting flat panel detectors convert incident X-rays directly into electrical charges. Indirect detectors convert X-rays to visible light, then to electrical charges. All flat panel detectors send a digitized electrical signal to a computer using a direct link. Charge coupled device detectors have a small chip similar to those used in digital cameras. A scintillator first converts X-rays to a light signal that is minified by an optical system before reaching the chip. The chip sends a digital signal directly to a computer. Both CR and DDR provide quality diagnostic images. CR is a mature technology while DDR is an emerging technology.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 02/2008; 49(1 Suppl 1):S2-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2007.00326.x · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Digital image archival requires less physical storage space, allows for rapid storage and retrieval and avoids loss in image quality over time or with image duplication compared with film storage. Because medical imaging data are critically important and, by law, must be stored in a safe, accessible manner, it is imperative not to have one computer error destroy all copies of the image data. Several options for image storage media are available including magnetic tape, optical media, spinning disks and solid state. Other considerations include on-site vs. off-site storage, redundancy, on-line vs. off-line storage, and removable storage media for disaster recovery. The different storage media can be used in different configurations to provide sufficient protection of digital data. Choose a storage system that will keep your data safe from unauthorized access, hardware failure, and clinic disasters.
    Veterinary Radiology &amp Ultrasound 02/2008; 49(1 Suppl 1):S37-41. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2007.00332.x · 1.45 Impact Factor
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