Population differences in DNA sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium at the PON1 gene.
ABSTRACT Polymorphisms of the promoter region (-108C/T) and the coding region (192Q/R) of the paraoxonase 1 gene (PON1) showed differences in association with cardiovascular disease risk in various populations. To characterize the genetic variation underlying these important polymorphisms, we examined DNA sequence variation both in a 1.3-kb promoter region 16.5 kb from codon 192, and in a 1.7-kb region centered on the 192Q/R polymorphic site of the coding region of PON1, in 30 Africans, 30 Europeans and 64 Japanese. We found 10 polymorphic sites and 11 haplotypes in the 1.3-kb promoter region and 10 biallelic polymorphic sites and 10 haplotypes in the 1.7-kb region. From the PON1 sequences of chimpanzees and an orangutan, the ancestral type of codon 192 was found to be R. The number of pairs of polymorphic sites between the promoter and 1.7-kb regions that were in significant linkage disequilibrium was much higher in a Japanese population than in African and European populations. In addition, the pairs of polymorphic sites in linkage disequilibrium differed among the three populations. These results suggest that some of the population differences in association with risk for coronary heart disease can be explained by population differences in haplotype frequency of PON1 haplotypes.
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ABSTRACT: A 3-kb region encompassing the beta-globin gene has been analyzed for allelic sequence polymorphism in nine populations from Africa, Asia, and Europe. A unique gene tree was constructed from 326 sequences of 349 in the total sample. New maximum-likelihood methods for analyzing gene trees on the basis of coalescence theory have been used. The most recent common ancestor of the beta-globin gene tree is a sequence found only in Africa and estimated to have arisen approximately 800,000 years ago. There is no evidence for an exponential expansion out of a bottlenecked founding population, and an effective population size of approximately 10,000 has been maintained. Modest differences in levels of beta-globin diversity between Africa and Asia are better explained by greater African effective population size than by greater time depth. There may have been a reduction of Asian effective population size in recent evolutionary history. Characteristically Asian ancestry is estimated to be older than 200,000 years, suggesting that the ancestral hominid population at this time was widely dispersed across Africa and Asia. Patterns of beta-globin diversity suggest extensive worldwide late Pleistocene gene flow and are not easily reconciled with a unidirectional migration out of Africa 100,000 years ago and total replacement of archaic populations in Asia.The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/1997; 60(4):772-89. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Variation in human skin/hair pigmentation is due to varied amounts of eumelanin (brown/black melanins) and phaeomelanin (red/yellow melanins) produced by the melanocytes. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a regulator of eu- and phaeomelanin production in the melanocytes, and MC1R mutations causing coat color changes are known in many mammals. We have sequenced the MC1R gene in 121 individuals sampled from world populations with an emphasis on Asian populations. We found variation at five nonsynonymous sites (resulting in the variants Arg67Gln, Asp84Glu, Val92Met, Arg151Cys, and Arg163Gln), but at only one synonymous site (A942G). Interestingly, the human consensus protein sequence is observed in all 25 African individuals studied, but at lower frequencies in the other populations examined, especially in East and Southeast Asians. The Arg163Gln variant is absent in the Africans studied, almost absent in Europeans, and at a low frequency (7%) in Indians, but is at an exceptionally high frequency (70%) in East and Southeast Asians. The MC1R gene in common and pygmy chimpanzees, gorilla, orangutan, and baboon was sequenced to study the evolution of MC1R. The ancestral human MC1R sequence is identical to the human consensus protein sequence, while MC1R varies considerably among higher primates. A comparison of the rates of substitution in genes in the melanocortin receptor family indicates that MC1R has evolved the fastest. In addition, the nucleotide diversity at the MC1R locus is shown to be several times higher than the average nucleotide diversity in human populations, possibly due to diversifying selection.Genetics 05/1999; 151(4):1547-57. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although some mitochondrial, X chromosome, and autosomal sequence diversity data are available for our closest relatives, Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus, data from the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) are more limited. We examined approximately 3 kb of NRY DNA from 101 chimpanzees, seven bonobos, and 42 humans to investigate: (i) relative levels of intraspecific diversity; (ii) the degree of paternal lineage sorting among species and subspecies of the genus Pan; and (iii) the date of the chimpanzee/bonobo divergence. We identified 10 informative sequence-tagged sites associated with 23 polymorphisms on the NRY from the genus Pan. Nucleotide diversity was significantly higher on the NRY of chimpanzees and bonobos than on the human NRY. Similar to mtDNA, but unlike X-linked and autosomal loci, lineages defined by mutations on the NRY were not shared among subspecies of P. troglodytes. Comparisons with mtDNA ND2 sequences from some of the same individuals revealed a larger female versus male effective population size for chimpanzees. The NRY-based divergence time between chimpanzees and bonobos was estimated at approximately 1.8 million years ago. In contrast to human populations who appear to have had a low effective size and a recent origin with subsequent population growth, some taxa within the genus Pan may be characterized by large populations of relatively constant size, more ancient origins, and high levels of subdivision.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2002; 99(1):43-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor