Activation of FoxM1 during G2 requires cyclin A/Cdk-dependent relief of autorepression by the FoxM1 N-terminal domain.

Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center, Stratenum 2.118, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 06/2008; 28(9):3076-87.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Forkhead transcription factor FoxM1 is an important regulator of gene expression during the G(2) phase. Here, we show that FoxM1 transcriptional activity is kept low during G(1)/S through the action of its N-terminal autoinhibitory domain. We found that cyclin A/cdk complexes are required to phosphorylate and activate FoxM1 during G(2) phase. Deletion of the N-terminal autoinhibitory region of FoxM1 generates a mutant of FoxM1 (DeltaN-FoxM1) that is active throughout the cell cycle and no longer depends on cyclin A for its activation. Mutation of two cyclin A/cdk sites in the C-terminal transactivation domain leads to inactivation of full-length FoxM1 but does not affect the transcriptional activity of the DeltaN-FoxM1 mutant. We show that the intramolecular interaction of the N- and C-terminal domains depends on two RXL/LXL motifs in the C terminus of FoxM1. Mutation of these domains leads to a similar gain of function as deletion of the N-terminal repressor domain. Based on these observations we propose a model in which FoxM1 is kept inactive during the G(1)/S transition through the action of the N-terminal autorepressor domain, while phosphorylation by cyclin A/cdk complexes during G(2) results in relief of inhibition by the N terminus, allowing activation of FoxM1-mediated gene transcription.

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