Mycotoxins in cattle feeds and carry-over to dairy milk: A review

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Division of Veterinary Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.8). 03/2008; 25(2):172-80. DOI: 10.1080/02652030701823142
Source: PubMed


The complex diet of ruminants, consisting of forages, concentrates, and preserved feeds, can be a source of very diverse mycotoxins that contaminate individual feed components. A number of mycotoxins are successfully inactivated by the rumen flora, whereas others pass unchanged or are converted into metabolites that retain biological activity. Hence, the barrier function of the rumen largely determines the susceptibility of dairy cows and other ruminant species towards individual mycotoxins. An impairment of this barrier function due to diseases or the direct antimicrobial effect of certain mycotoxins may increase absorption rates. The rate of absorption determines not only the internal dose and risk for adverse health effects, but also the excretion of mycotoxins and the biologically active metabolites into milk.

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Available from: J. Fink-Gremmels, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are produced by a wide range of fungi known to contaminate a variety of food and agricultural commodities worldwide (CAST, 2003). Their occurrence in agricultural commodities has been recognized as a potential threat to humans and animals, either by direct contamination of plant materials or products (Fink-Gremmels, 1999) or by the 'carry over' of mycotoxins and their metabolites into animal tissues, milk and eggs after intake of contaminated feed (Fink-Gremmels, 2008; Mavungu et al., 2009). The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated that approximately 25% of the world's agricultural commodities are contaminated with mycotoxins (Kabak et al., 2006). "
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    • "Animals are effective toxin eliminators with milk, the animal product most likely to contain aflatoxin residues. The hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxins B1, aflatoxins M1 is excreted into milk from 1 to 6% of dietary intake (Fink-Gremmels, 2008). "
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    • "Aflatoxin M 1 (AFM1), which is a derivative of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1), is the most commonly occurring aflatoxin detected in milk. In most isolates of these fungi AFB1 is produced in the highest amount (Pietri & Piva 2007; Fink-Gremmels 2008). Contaminated feedstuffs produced at the farm, or purchased and/or imported from feed producers are the main source of aflatoxins for the lactating animals (Canever et al. 2004; Giorni et al. 2007; Prandini et al. 2009; Bertocchi et al. 2012). "
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