Cancer treatment: the combination of vaccination with other therapies.
ABSTRACT Harnessing of the immune system by the development of 'therapeutic' vaccines, for the battle against cancer has been the focus of tremendous research efforts over the past two decades. As an illustration of the impressive amounts of data gathered over the past years, numerous antigens expressed on the surface of cancer cells, have been characterized. To this end, recent years research has focussed on characterization of antigens that play an important role for the growth and survival of cancer cells. Anti-apoptotic molecules like survivin that enhance the survival of cancer cells and facilitate their escape from cytotoxic therapies represent prime vaccination candidates. The characterization of a high number of tumor antigens allow the concurrent or serial immunological targeting of different proteins associated with such cancer traits. Moreover, while vaccination in itself is a promising new approach to fight cancer, the combination with additional therapy could create a number of synergistic effects. Herein we discuss the possibilities and prospects of vaccination when combined with other treatments. In this regard, cell death upon drug exposure may be immunogenic or non-immunogenic depending on the specific chemotherapeutics. Also, chemotherapy represents one of several options available for clearance of CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Moreover, therapies based on monoclonal antibodies may have synergistic potential in combination with vaccination, both when used for targeting of tumor cells and endothelial cells. The efficacy of therapeutic vaccination against cancer will over the next few years be studied in settings taking advantage of strategies in which vaccination is combined with other treatment modalities. These combinations should be based on current knowledge not only regarding the biology of the cancer cell per se, but also considering how treatment may influence the malignant cell population as well as the immune system.
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ABSTRACT: agents administered during hospi- talization at a tertiary care acade- mic medical center. The retrospec- tive analysis was conducted over 1 year. A total of 416 allergies were reported among 300 patients; more than 1 allergy was reported by more than one-fourth of study patients (82/300 (27.3%)). Only 36.3% (151/416) of allergies reported were accompanied by a reaction description (95% confi- dence interval (CI), 31.7% to
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the western world. It is also the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the United States with a recent estimate for new cases of colorectal cancer in the year 2012 being around 103,170. Various risk factors for colorectal cancer include life-style, diet, age, personal and family history, and racial and ethnic background. While a few cancers are certainly preventable but this does not hold true for colon cancer as it is often detected in its advanced stage and generally not diagnosed until symptoms become apparent. Despite the fact that several options are available for treating this cancer through surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and nutritional-supplement therapy, but the success rates are not very encouraging when used alone where secondary complications appear in almost all these therapies. To maximize the therapeutic-effects in patients, combinatorial approaches are essential. In this review we have discussed the therapies previously and currently available to patients diagnosed with colorectal-cancer, focus on some recent developments in basic research that has shaded lights on new therapeutic-concepts utilizing macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer cells, gene delivery, siRNA-, and microRNA-technology, and specific-targeting of tyrosine kinases that are either mutated or over-expressed in the cancerous cell to treat these cancer. Potential strategies are discussed where these concepts could be applied to the existing therapies under a comprehensive approach to enhance the therapeutic effects.Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 10/2012; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The induction of active immunity against tumor-associated antigens in order to prevent relapse of cancer is a promising approach but has so far shown only low efficacy. This low efficacy may in part be due to clonal escape of tumor cell variants by downregulation of antigen expression or inflammation-induced dedifferentiation. Identification of novel tumor-associated antigens that at the same time are essential for continued tumor cell survival is thus critical for the development of active cancer vaccinations. At the same time, identification of novel endogenous murine tumor antigens will help improve pre-clinical development of cancer immunotherapy. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL has been suggested to be such an essential tumor antigen, but the lack of well-defined murine epitopes have delayed preclinical studies of Bcl-xL targeting cancer vaccines. Here, we report the identification of two novel murine tumor-associated epitopes TAYQSFEQV and AFFSFGGAL derived from mouse Bcl-xL. Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination induced CD8+ T cells capable of producing IFN-γ upon restimulation with these epitopes. Thus, our data may benefit the design of future immunotherapy strategies by providing a pre-clinical model for cancervaccination with an endogenous tumor antigen which can be combined with other cancer treatments.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 05/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor