Oncoantigens as anti-tumor vaccination targets: the chance of a lucky strike?
ABSTRACT Neoplastic transformation is a multistage process and distinct gene products of specific cell regulatory pathways are involved at each stage. Identification of genes overexpressed at a specific stage provides an unprecedented opportunity to address the immune system against antigens with a driving role in tumor progression (oncoantigens). The ERBB2 oncogene is a prototype of deregulated oncogenic protein kinase membrane receptors. Mice transgenic for rat ERBB2 (BALB-neuT mice) were used in this study to identify an additional set of oncoantigens expressed at defined stages by most breast carcinomas to be used as alternatives to ERBB2-driven vaccination. To address this question, we integrated the transcription data generated by comparing preneoplastic lesions and neoplasia in BALB-neuT mice with a meta-analysis on transcription profiles generated from normal and breast tumor human specimens. Forty-six putative oncoantigens identified and prioritized according to their expression on the cell membrane or in the extra cellular space, cytoplasm and nucleus were chosen for preclinical investigation as vaccination targets.
- SourceAvailable from: Manuela Iezzi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 81% of all cases of lung cancer and they are often fatal because 60% of the patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Besides the need for earlier diagnosis, there is a high need for additional effective therapies. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of a lung cancer progression mouse model, mimicking features of human aggressive NSCLC, as biological reservoir for potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers.BMC genomics. 05/2014; 15(Suppl 3):S1.
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ABSTRACT: The tyrosine kinase human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene is amplified in approximately 20% of human breast cancers and is associated with an aggressive clinical course and the early development of metastasis. Its crucial role in tumor growth and progression makes HER2 a prototypic oncoantigen, the targeting of which may be critical for the development of effective anticancer therapies. The setup of anti-HER2 targeting strategies has revolutionized the clinical outcome of HER2(+) breast cancer. However, their initial success has been overshadowed by the onset of pharmacological resistance that renders them ineffective. Since the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a crucial role in drug resistance, the design of more effective anticancer therapies should depend on the targeting of both cancer cells and their TME as a whole. In this review, starting from the successful know-how obtained with a HER2(+) mouse model of mammary carcinogenesis, the BALB-neuT mice, we discuss the role of TME in mammary tumor development. Indeed, a deeper knowledge of antigens critical for cancer outbreak and progression and of the mechanisms that regulate the interplay between cancer and stromal cell populations could advise promising ways for the development of the best anticancer strategy.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:534969. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vaccines against human breast cancer are an unfulfilled promise. Despite decades of promising preclinical and clinical research, no vaccine is currently available for breast cancer patients. Preclinical research has much to do with this failure, as early mouse models of mammary carcinoma did not mirror the molecular, cellular, antigenic and immunological features of human breast cancer. The advent of HER-2 transgenic mice gave impulse to a new generation of cell and DNA vaccines against mammary carcinoma, that in turn led to the definition of significant antigenic (oncoantigens) and cellular (cancer-initiating cells, preneoplastic lesions, incipient metastases) targets. Future preclinical developments will include the discovery of novel oncoantigens in HER-2-negative mammary carcinoma and the targeting of activated HER-2 molecular variants. Translation to clinically effective vaccines will be fostered not only by new preclinical model systems, but also by the possibility to conduct veterinary vaccination trials in companion animals.Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2013; 12(12):1449-63. · 4.22 Impact Factor