Clinical Outcome of HIV-Infected Antiretroviral-Naive Patients With Discordant Immunologic and Virologic Responses to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0022, USA.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.39). 05/2008; 47(5):553-8. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31816856c5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The prognostic significance of a response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that is immunologically and virologically discordant is not well understood.
Four hundred four antiretroviral-naive patients initiating HAART at an urban HIV outpatient clinic in 1995 to 2004 were analyzed. The association of treatment responses at 3 to 9 months after HAART initiation with time to development of an opportunistic infection (OI) or death was determined using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between discordant responses and patient characteristics.
Of 404 patients, 70.5% experienced favorable concordant responses (CD4 cell count [CD4]+/viral load [VL]+: increase in CD4 count of >or=50 cells/microL and achievement of undetectable plasma HIV RNA level), 15.8% an immunologic response only (CD4+/VL(-)), 8.7% a virologic response only (CD4(-)/VL+), and 5.0% a concordant unfavorable response (CD4(-)/VL(-)). Both types of discordant responses (CD4+/VL(-) and CD4(-)/VL+), nonresponse (CD4(-)/VL(-)), and baseline CD4 cell count were significantly associated with earlier development of an OI or death (relative hazard [RH] = 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31 to 3.97; RH = 4.83, 95% CI: 2.10 to 11.12; and RH = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.99, respectively). CD4+/VL(-) and CD4(-)/VL(-) were associated with nonwhite race in multivariate logistic regression models (adjusted OR = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.46 to 5.47 and adjusted OR = 6.50, 95% CI: 1.65 to 25.69, respectively).
Discordant immunologic and virologic responses at 3 to 9 months after HAART initiation play important roles in predicting long-term clinical outcomes in treatment-naive patients.

Download full-text


Available from: Andrew O Westfall, Jul 07, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MRI alterations in the cerebral white (WM) and gray matter (GM) are common in HIV infection, even during successful combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), and their pathophysiology and clinical significance are unclear. We evaluated the association of these alterations with recovery of CD4+ T cells. Seventy-five HIV-infected (HIV+) volunteers in the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research study underwent brain MRI at two visits. Multi-channel morphometry yielded volumes of total cerebral WM, abnormal WM, cortical and subcortical GM, and ventricular and sulcal CSF. Multivariable linear regressions were used to predict volumetric changes with change in current CD4 and detectable HIV RNA. On average, the cohort (79 % initially on CART) demonstrated loss of total cerebral WM alongside increases in abnormal WM and ventricular volumes. A greater extent of CD4 recovery was associated with increases in abnormal WM and subcortical GM volumes. Virologic suppression was associated with increased subcortical GM volume, independent of CD4 recovery. These findings suggest a possible link between brain alterations and immune recovery, distinct from the influence of virologic suppression. The association of increasing abnormal WM and subcortical GM volumes with CD4+ T cell recovery suggests that neuroinflammation may be one mechanism in CNS pathogenesis.
    Journal of NeuroVirology 07/2013; 19(4). DOI:10.1007/s13365-013-0185-7 · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A proportion of individuals who start antiretroviral therapy (ART) fail to achieve adequate CD4 cell reconstitution despite sustained viral suppression. We determined the frequency and clinical significance of suboptimal CD4 reconstitution despite viral suppression (SO-CD4) in an urban HIV research cohort in Kampala, Uganda. We analyzed data from a prospective research cohort of 559 patients initiating ART between 04/04-04/05. We described the patterns of SO-CD4 both in terms of:- I) magnitude of CD4 cell increase (a CD4 count increase < 50 CD4 cells/microl at 6 months, <100 cells/microl at 12 months; and <200 cells/microl at 24 months of ART) and II) failure to achieve a CD4 cell count above 200 cells/microl at 6,12 and 24 months of ART. Using criteria I) we used logistic regression to determine the predictors of SO-CD4. We compared the cumulative risk of clinical events (death and/or recurrent or new AIDS-defining illnesses) among patients with and without SO-CD4. Of 559 patients initiating ART, 386 (69%) were female. Median (IQR) age and baseline CD4 counts were 38 yrs (33-44) and 98 cells/microl (21-163) respectively; 414 (74%) started a d4T-based regimen (D4T+3TC+NVP) and 145 (26%) a ZDV-based regimen (ZDV+3TC+EFV). After 6, 12 and 24 months of ART, 380 (68%), 339 (61%) and 309 (55%) had attained and sustained HIV-RNA viral suppression. Of these, 78 (21%), 151 (45%) and 166 (54%) respectively had SO-CD4 based on criteria I), and 165(43%), 143(42%) and 58(19%) respectively based on criteria II). With both criteria combined, 56 (15%) and 129 (38%) had SO-CD4 at 6 and 12 months respectively. A high proportion (82% and 58%) of those that had SO-CD4 at 6 months (using criteria I) maintained SO-CD4 at 12 and 24 months respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of clinical events among patients with [19/100PYO (12-29)] and without SO-CD4 [23/100PYO (19-28)]. Using criteria I), the frequency of SO-CD4 was 21% at 6 months. Majority of patients with SO-CD4 at 6 months maintained SO-CD4 up to 2 years. We recommend studies of CD4 T-cell functional recovery among patients with SO-CD4.
    AIDS Research and Therapy 10/2008; 5:23. DOI:10.1186/1742-6405-5-23 · 1.84 Impact Factor