Zarit burden inventory and activities of daily living in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia.
ABSTRACT Activities of daily living (ADL) and caregiver burden are known to have a major impact on the decision to institutionalize patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet little research has been done on these aspects in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Aim: To compare ADL and caregiver burden in FTD and in early-onset AD.
We compared 26 FTD and 28 AD patients with respect to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Mini Mental State Examination, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS), Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) and Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI).
Demographic variables for FTD and AD were similar. FTD patients obtained a significantly higher NPI behavioral score than AD patients (median, 39.5 vs. 11; p < 0.0001). However, the two groups did not differ in their total DAD score. No correlations were observed between DAD and cognitive status (MDRS) or between DAD and behavioral impairment (NPI). The ZBI was higher in FTD than in AD patients (median, 40 vs. 18.5; p = 0.0004) and was correlated with the NPI in both groups.
Functional disability was similar in FTD and AD patients. Nevertheless, the caregiver burden was higher in FTD than in AD, a result that has important implications for caregiver help.
- The Gerontologist 02/1969; 9(3):179-86. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease include insidious onset and progressive impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. There are no motor, sensory, or coordination deficits early in the disease. The diagnosis cannot be determined by laboratory tests. These tests are important primarily in identifying other possible causes of dementia that must be excluded before the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease may be made with confidence. Neuropsychological tests provide confirmatory evidence of the diagnosis of dementia and help to assess the course and response to therapy. The criteria proposed are intended to serve as a guide for the diagnosis of probable, possible, and definite Alzheimer's disease; these criteria will be revised as more definitive information become available.Neurology 07/2011; 77(4):333. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Behavioural changes are a key factor in distinguishing frontotemporal dementia (FTD) from Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, little is known about the impact of these changes on caregivers. The aim of this study was to compare caregivers' distress related to behavioural symptoms of AD and FTD. 47 spouse caregivers of consecutively referred patients with AD and 27 spouse caregivers of patients with FTD participated in this study. Behavioural disturbances in the patient and caregivers' emotional reactions were measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Patients with FTD had significantly higher levels of agitation, apathy, disinhibition and aberrant motor behaviour than did patients with AD. High distress scores were found for disinhibition, depression and apathy in caregivers of FTD patients whereas caregivers of AD patients reported patient apathy, depression and anxiety as being severely distressing. Higher mean distress scores were found for disinhibition in the FTD group. Furthermore, caregivers of FTD patients reported higher levels of general burden, and felt less competent than AD caregivers. Caregivers of FTD patients were overall more distressed by the behaviour of their partners than were the caregivers of AD patients. Findings from this study underscore the importance of differentiating between diagnostic groups and specific behavioural domains when focusing on caregiver reactions to problem behaviour.Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 02/2006; 22(1):35-41. · 2.79 Impact Factor