Salt Intake Is Related to Soft Drink Consumption in Children and Adolescents A Link to Obesity?

Blood Pressure Unit, Cardiac and Vascular Sciences, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, United Kingdom.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 04/2008; 51(3):629-34. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.100990
Source: PubMed


Dietary salt is a major determinant of fluid intake in adults; however, little is known about this relationship in children. Sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption is related to childhood obesity, but it is unclear whether there is a link between salt and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. We analyzed the data of a cross-sectional study, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for young people in Great Britain. Salt intake and fluid intake were assessed in 1688 participants aged 4 to 18 years, using a 7-day dietary record. There was a significant association between salt intake and total fluid, as well as sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption (P<0.001), after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A difference of 1 g/d in salt intake was associated with a difference of 100 and 27 g/d in total fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption, respectively. These results, in conjunction with other evidence, particularly that from experimental studies where only salt intake was changed, demonstrate that salt is a major determinant of fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption during childhood. If salt intake in children in the United Kingdom was reduced by half (mean decrease: 3 g/d), there would be an average reduction of approximately 2.3 sugar-sweetened soft drinks per week per child. A reduction in salt intake could, therefore, play a role in helping to reduce childhood obesity through its effect on sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. This would have a beneficial effect on preventing cardiovascular disease independent of and additive to the effect of salt reduction on blood pressure.

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    • "Indirect evidence has been reported for the association between increased food consumption and urinary sodium excretion.24) An alternate explanation is that increased consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks are accompanied by ingestion of foods with high sodium content.25)26) "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome and high sodium intake are associated with frequent cardiovascular events. Few studies have estimated sodium intake in subjects with metabolic syndrome by 24-hour urine sodium excretion. We evaluated sodium intake in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Participants were recruited by random selection and through advertisement. Twenty four-hour urine collection, ambulatory blood pressure measurements, and blood test were performed. Sodium intake was estimated by 24-hour urine sodium excretion. Participants receiving antihypertensive medications were excluded from analysis. Among the 463 participants recruited, subjects with metabolic syndrome had higher levels of 24-hour urine sodium excretion than subjects without metabolic syndrome (p=0.0001). There was a significant relationship between the number of metabolic syndrome factors and 24-hour urine sodium excretion (p=0.001). The proportion of subjects with metabolic syndrome was increased across the tertile groups of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (p<0.0001). The association of high sodium intake and metabolic syndrome was significant only among women. Among the factors related to metabolic syndrome, body mass index had an independent association with 24-hour urine sodium excretion (p<0.0001). Women with metabolic syndrome exhibited significantly higher sodium intake, suggesting that dietary education to reduce sodium consumption should be emphasized for women with metabolic syndrome.
    Korean Circulation Journal 01/2014; 44(1):30-6. DOI:10.4070/kcj.2014.44.1.30 · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    • "An explanation for this could be that a high intake of salt stimulates appetite and thirst consequently increasing the total energy intake [3]. This explanation was supported by He et al. who found that a difference of 1 g/d in salt intake was associated with a difference of 27 g/d in sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption among children and adolescents [7]. Hence, it seems reasonable to assume that a potential effect of dietary salt on development of obesity may be the consequence of a poor or a high energy diet. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987-1988 and 1993-1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P = 0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of -0.21 kg (P = 0.041, CI: -0.40 to -0.01). These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM.
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e69689. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069689 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, dietary sodium intake might be related with sweet taste, as shown in the present study in the total and women-only groups. It was reported that salt intake was related to sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption [38], which may increase the preference for sweet taste by prolonged exposure [39]. These results also show that there may be gender differences in the intake of nutrients or food according to taste preferences. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary sodium intake is considered one of the major causal factors for hypertension. Thus, to control the increase of blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension-related clinical complications, a reduction in sodium intake is recommended. The present study aimed at determining the association of dietary sodium intake with meal and snack frequency, snacking time, and taste preference in Korean young adults aged 20-26 years, using a 125-item dish-frequency questionnaire. The mean dietary sodium intakes of men and women were 270.6 mmol/day and 213.1 mmol/day, which were approximately 310% and 245% of the daily sodium intake goal for Korean men and women, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in the total group, and BMI in the total and men-only groups. In the total and men-only groups, those who consumed meals more times per day consumed more dietary sodium, but the number of times they consumed snacks was negatively correlated with dietary sodium intake in the total, men-only, and women-only groups. In addition, those who consumed snacks in the evening consumed more sodium than those who did so in the morning in the men-only group. The sodium intake was also positively associated with preference for salty and sweet taste in the total and women-only groups. Such a high intake of sodium in these young subjects shows that a reduction in sodium intake is important for the prevention of hypertension and related diseases in the future.
    Nutrition research and practice 06/2013; 7(3):192-8. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2013.7.3.192 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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