The ABCA1 cholesterol transporter associates with one of two distinct dystrophin-based scaffolds in Schwann cells
ABSTRACT Cytoskeletal scaffolding complexes help organize specialized membrane domains with unique functions on the surface of cells. In this study, we define the scaffolding potential of the Schwann cell dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) by establishing the presence of four syntrophin isoforms, (alpha1, beta1, beta2, and gamma2), and one dystrobrevin isoform, (alpha-dystrobrevin-1), in the abaxonal membrane. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of two separate DGCs in Schwann cells that divide the abaxonal membrane into spatially distinct domains, the DRP2/periaxin rich plaques and the Cajal bands that contain Dp116, utrophin, alpha-dystrobrevin-1 and four syntrophin isoforms. Finally, we show that the two different DGCs can scaffold unique accessory molecules in distinct areas of the Schwann cell membrane. Specifically, the cholesterol transporter ABCA1, associates with the Dp116/syntrophin complex in Cajal bands and is excluded from the DRP2/periaxin rich plaques.
SourceAvailable from: Chi-Chao Chan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The glaucoma-associated gene, myocilin, is expressed in ocular and non-ocular tissues including the peripheral nervous system, but its functions in these tissues remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that in sciatic nerve, myocilin is expressed in Schwann cells with high concentrations at the nodes of Ranvier. There, myocilin interacts with gliomedin, neurofascin, and NrCAM, which are essential for node formation and function. Treatment of isolated dorsal root ganglion cultures with myocilin stimulates clustering of the nodal proteins neurofascin and sodium channel NaV1.2. Sciatic nerves of myocilin null mice express reduced levels of several myelin-associated and basal membrane proteins compared with those of wild-type littermates. They also demonstrate reduced myelin sheath thickness and partial disorganization of the nodes. Myocilin signaling through ErbB2/3 receptors may contribute to these observed effects. Myocilin binds to ErbB2/ErbB3, activates these receptors and affects the downstream PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. These data implicate a role for myocilin in the development and/or maintenance of myelination and nodes of Ranvier in sciatic nerve.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2013; 288(37). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.446138 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have unmasked plectin, a uniquely versatile intermediate filament-associated cytolinker protein, to be essential for skin and skeletal muscle integrity. Different sets of isoforms of the protein were found to stabilize cells mechanically, regulate cytoskeletal dynamics, and serve as a scaffolding platform for signaling molecules. Here, we investigated whether a similar scenario prevails in myelinating Schwann cells. Using isoform-specific antibodies, the two plectin variants predominantly expressed in the cytoplasmic compartment (Cajal bands) of Schwann cells were identified as plectin (P)1 and P1c. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunolocalization experiments revealed complex formation of Cajal band plectin with β-dystroglycan, the core component of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex that in Schwann cells is crucial for the compartmentalization and stabilization of the myelin sheath. To study the functional implications of Schwann cell-specific plectin-β-dystroglycan interaction, we generated conditional (Schwann cell-restricted) plectin knockout mice. Ablation of plectin in myelinating Schwann cells (SCs) was found not to affect myelin sheath formation but to abrogate the tight association of the dystroglycan complex with the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. We show that the disruption of this association leads to the destabilization of the dystroglycan complex combined with increased myelin sheath deformations observed in the peripheral nerve during ageing of the animal.Glia 08/2013; 61(8). DOI:10.1002/glia.22514 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the developing peripheral nervous system, a coordinated reciprocal signaling between Schwann cells and axons is crucial for accurate myelination. The myelin and lymphocyte protein MAL is a component of lipid rafts that is important for targeting proteins and lipids to distinct domains. MAL overexpression impedes peripheral myelinogenesis, which is evident by a delayed onset of myelination and reduced expression of the myelin protein zero (Mpz/P0) and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR). This study shows that MAL overexpression leads to a significant reduction of Mpz and p75(NTR) expression in primary mouse Schwann cell cultures, which was already evident before differentiation, implicating an effect of MAL in early Schwann cell development. Their transcription was robustly reduced, despite normal expression of essential transcription factors and receptors. Further, the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways important for Schwann cell differentiation were correctly induced, highlighting that other so far unknown rate limiting factors do exist. We identified novel genes expressed by Schwann cells in a MAL-dependent manner in vivo and in vitro. A number of those, including S100a4, RhoU and Krt23, are implicated in cytoskeletal organization and plasma membrane dynamics. We showed that S100a4 is predominantly expressed by nonmyelinating Schwann cells, whereas RhoU was localized within myelin membranes, and Krt23 was detected in nonmyelinating as well as in myelinating Schwann cells. Their differential expression during early peripheral nerve development further underlines their possible role in influencing Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.ASN Neuro 07/2014; 6(5). DOI:10.1177/1759091414548916 · 4.44 Impact Factor