Article

Structure of the DNA deaminase domain of the HIV-1 restriction factor APOBEC3G

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, [of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 04/2008; 452(7183):116-9. DOI: 10.1038/nature06638
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The human APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B messenger-RNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) protein is a single-strand DNA deaminase that inhibits the replication of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), other retroviruses and retrotransposons. APOBEC3G anti-viral activity is circumvented by most retroelements, such as through degradation by HIV-1 Vif. APOBEC3G is a member of a family of polynucleotide cytosine deaminases, several of which also target distinct physiological substrates. For instance, APOBEC1 edits APOB mRNA and AID deaminates antibody gene DNA. Although structures of other family members exist, none of these proteins has elicited polynucleotide cytosine deaminase or anti-viral activity. Here we report a solution structure of the human APOBEC3G catalytic domain. Five alpha-helices, including two that form the zinc-coordinating active site, are arranged over a hydrophobic platform consisting of five beta-strands. NMR DNA titration experiments, computational modelling, phylogenetic conservation and Escherichia coli-based activity assays combine to suggest a DNA-binding model in which a brim of positively charged residues positions the target cytosine for catalysis. The structure of the APOBEC3G catalytic domain will help us to understand functions of other family members and interactions that occur with pathogenic proteins such as HIV-1 Vif.

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Available from: Keisuke Shindo, Dec 27, 2013
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    • "Both distributions are rather narrow with maxima corresponding to the monomeric state of each protein. This finding is in line with the NMR results for A3A [20] and A3Gctd [36], [37] and the crystal structures of A3Gctd [36], [38], [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The APOBEC3 family of DNA cytosine deaminases functions to block the spread of endogenous retroelements and retroviruses including HIV-1. Potency varies among family members depending on the type of parasitic substrate. APOBEC3A (A3A) is unique among the human enzymes in that it is expressed predominantly in myeloid lineage cell types, it is strongly induced by innate immune agonists such as type 1 interferon, and it has the capacity to accommodate both normal and 5-methyl cytosine nucleobases. Here we apply atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the interaction between A3A and single- and double-stranded DNA using a hybrid DNA approach in which a single-stranded region is flanked by defined length duplexes. AFM image analyses reveal A3A binding to single-stranded DNA, and that this interaction becomes most evident (∼80% complex yield) at high protein-to-DNA ratios (at least 100∶1). A3A is predominantly monomeric when bound to single-stranded DNA, and it is also monomeric in solution at concentrations as high as 50 nM. These properties agree well with recent, biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies. However, these characteristics contrast with those of the related enzyme APOBEC3G, which in similar assays can exist as a monomer but tends to form oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. These AFM data indicate that A3A has intrinsic biophysical differences that distinguish it from APOBEC3G. The potential relationships between these properties and biological functions in innate immunity are discussed.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99354. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099354 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The crystal structure of A3G shows a shallow groove in A3G that surrounds the catalytic core and is postulated to be the binding site for ssDNA [40]. A potential DNA-binding groove is also apparent in the NMR structure. "
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    ABSTRACT: APOBEC3A (A3A), one of the seven-member APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases, lacks strong antiviral activity against lentiviruses but is a potent inhibitor of adeno-associated virus and endogenous retroelements. In this report, we characterize the biochemical properties of mammalian cell-produced and catalytically active E. coli-produced A3A. The enzyme binds to single-stranded DNA with a Kd of 150 nM and forms dimeric and monomeric fractions. A3A, unlike APOBEC3G (A3G), deaminates DNA substrates nonprocessively. Using a panel of oligonucleotides that contained all possible trinucleotide contexts, we identified the preferred target sequence as TC (A/G). Based on a three-dimensional model of A3A, we identified a putative binding groove that contains residues with the potential to bind substrate DNA and to influence target sequence specificity. Taking advantage of the sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of A3G, we generated A3A/A3G chimeric proteins and analyzed their target site preference. We identified a recognition loop that altered A3A sequence specificity, broadening its target sequence preference. Mutation of amino acids in the predicted DNA binding groove prevented substrate binding, confirming the role of this groove in substrate binding. These findings shed light on how APOBEC3 proteins bind their substrate and determine which sites to deaminate.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97062. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097062 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "(B) In A3A (PDB code: 2M65), the ssDNA appears to bind along a ''kinked'' groove similar to the Holden et al. (2008) model in A3G-CTD. Experimentally identified residues that are important in A3 ssDNA binding are presented in Table 3. (C) In A3F-CTD (PDB code: 4J4J), ssDNA binds along a ''straight'' groove similar to the observed model by Furukawa et al. (2009) and Chen et al. (2008) in A3G-CTD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human APOBEC3 (A3) proteins are host-encoded intrinsic restriction factors that inhibit the replication of many retroviral pathogens. Restriction is believed to occur as a result of the DNA cytosine deaminase activity of the A3 proteins; this activity converts cytosines into uracils in single-stranded DNA retroviral replication intermediates. A3 proteins are also equipped with deamination-independent means to restrict retroviruses that work cooperatively with deamination-dependent restriction pathways. A3 proteins substantially bolster the intrinsic immune system by providing a powerful block to the transmission of retroviral pathogens; however, most retroviruses are able to subvert this replicative restriction in their natural host. HIV-1, for instance, evades A3 proteins through the activity of its accessory protein Vif. Here, we summarize data from recent A3 structural and functional studies to provide perspectives into the interactions between cellular A3 proteins and HIV-1 macromolecules throughout the viral replication cycle.
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