Remote preconditioning is a unique phenomenon in which brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion to remote organs protect the target organ against sustained ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. Protective effects of remote renal preconditioning are well established in the heart, but their mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the possible involvement of erythropoietin in remote renal preconditioning (RRPC)-induced cardioprotection in rats. RRPC was performed by 4 episodes of 5 min renal artery occlusion followed by 5 min reperfusion. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal) was administered for 6 days for induction of renal failure. Isolated rat hearts were perfused on Langendorff apparatus and were subjected to global ischemia for 30 min ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured in coronary effluent to assess the degree of myocardial injury. Extent of myocardial infarct size and coronary flow rate was also measured. RRPC prevented I/R-induced myocardial injury and produced cardioprotective effects. However, cardioprotective effects of RRPC were not observed in renal failure rats, indicating the protective role of humoral factor was released from functional kidneys. In renal failure rats, exogenous administration of rhEPO (5,000 IU/kg intraperitoneal) with RRPC restored the cardioprotective effects of later. These results implicate that RRPC-induced cardioprotective effects may be mediated through release of erythropoietin from kidney.
"A blood-borne factor conveying the cardioprotective signal from the remote organ or tissue has been supported by two main observations: (1) coronary effluent from the ischemic conditioned heart (Dickson et al., 1999a, 2001) or blood from the conditioned animal (Dickson et al., 1999b) can protect a naive recipient heart from IRI, suggesting the transfer of protective humoral factor(s); and (2) a period of reperfusion of the remote conditioned organ was required for protection suggesting that protective stimulus required wash-out of a protective blood-borne humoral factor(s) generated in the conditioned site and transported throughout the circulation (McClanahan et al., 1993; Gho et al., 1996; Weinbrenner et al., 2002). Activation of adenosine (Pell et al., 1998; Takaoka et al., 1999; Kerendi et al., 2005; Tsubota et al., 2010), bradykinin-2 (Wolfrum et al., 2002), opioids (Dickson et al., 2001, 2002; Patel et al., 2002; Weinbrenner et al., 2004; Zhou et al., 2011), erythropoietin (Diwan et al., 2008a,b), CB 2 endocannabinoid (Hajrasouliha et al., 2008), angiotensin-1 (Singh and Chopra, 2004), and prostaglandin (Brzozowski et al., 2004a) receptors and the associated signaling pathways has been implicated in mediating the protective effect of RIC. However, whether they constitute the endogenous substances that are generated in the remote conditioned organ or tissue and being transported to the injured organ target through blood circulation remains unknown. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a therapeutic strategy for protecting organs or tissue against the detrimental effects of acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). It describes an endogenous phenomenon in which the application of one or more brief cycles of non-lethal ischemia and reperfusion to an organ or tissue protects a remote organ or tissue from a sustained episode of lethal IRI. Although RIC protection was first demonstrated to protect the heart against acute myocardial infarction, its beneficial effects are also seen in other organs (lung, liver, kidney, intestine, brain) and tissues (skeletal muscle) subjected to acute IRI. The recent discovery that RIC can be induced non-invasively by simply inflating and deflating a standard blood pressure cuff placed on the upper arm or leg, has facilitated its translation into the clinical setting, where it has been reported to be beneficial in a variety of cardiac scenarios. In this review article we provide an overview of RIC, the potential underlying mechanisms, and its potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for protecting the heart and other organs from acute IRI.
Frontiers in Physiology 02/2012; 3:27. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2012.00027 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been recently reported that release of erythropoietin could mediate the cardioprotective effects of remote renal preconditioning. However, the mechanism of erythropoietin-mediated cardioprotection in remote preconditioning is still unexplored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible signal transduction pathway of erythropoietin-mediated cardioprotection in remote preconditioning in rats. Remote renal preconditioning was performed by four episodes of 5 min renal artery occlusion followed by 5 min reperfusion. Isolated rat hearts were perfused on Langendorff apparatus and were subjected to global ischemia for 30 min followed by 120 min reperfusion. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured in coronary effluent to assess the degree of myocardial injury. Extent of myocardial infarct size and coronary flow rate was also measured. Remote renal preconditioning and erythropoietin preconditioning (5,000 IUkg(-1), i.p.) attenuated ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury and produced cardioprotective effects. However, administration of diethyldithiocarbamic acid (150 mg kg(-1) i.p.), a selective NFkB inhibitor, and glibenclamide (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.), a selective K(ATP) channel blocker, attenuated cardioprotective effects of remote preconditioning and erythropoietin preconditioning. However, administration of minoxidil (1 mg kg(-1) i.v.), a selective K(ATP) channel opener, restored the attenuated cardioprotective effects of remote preconditioning and erythropoietin preconditioning in diethyldithiocarbamic acid pretreated rats. These results suggest that K(ATP) channel is a downstream mediator of NFkB activation in remote preconditioning and erythropoietin preconditioning. Therefore, it may be concluded that erythropoietin preconditioning and remote renal preconditioning trigger similar signaling mechanisms for cardioprotection, i.e., NFkB activation followed by opening of K(ATP) channels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the modulatory effects of rottlerin on ischemia reperfusion induced myocardial injury. Isolated rat hearts were exposed to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion using Langendorff apparatus. Myocardial injury was assessed in the terms of infarct size, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) enzymes. Rottlerin, a selective PKCdelta inhibitor, did not modulate ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induced myocardial injury at low dose (3 microM). However, at moderate dose (6 microM) it significantly produced cardioprotective effects. On the contrary, rottlerin at high dose (12 microM) significantly enhanced I/R induced myocardial injury. However, administration of FR-167653 (1.1 microM, 2.2 microM), a selective p-38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p-38 MAPK) inhibitor, attenuated rottlerin (12 microM) mediated enhancement in I/R induced myocardial injury in a dose dependent manner. Per se administration of FR-167653 (1.1 microM, 2.2 microM) also attenuated I/R induced myocardial injury in a dose dependent manner. Pretreatment with rottlerin (6 microM) did not enhance the cardioprotective effects of FR-167653 (2.2 microM). It may be concluded that rottlerin mediated cardioprotective effects at moderate dose, possible due to inhibition of PKCdelta; while at high dose it enhanced I/R induced myocardial injury which may be attributed to activation of p-38 MAPK.
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