Possible involvement of erythropoietin in remote renal preconditioning-induced cardioprotection in rats.
ABSTRACT Remote preconditioning is a unique phenomenon in which brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion to remote organs protect the target organ against sustained ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. Protective effects of remote renal preconditioning are well established in the heart, but their mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the possible involvement of erythropoietin in remote renal preconditioning (RRPC)-induced cardioprotection in rats. RRPC was performed by 4 episodes of 5 min renal artery occlusion followed by 5 min reperfusion. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal) was administered for 6 days for induction of renal failure. Isolated rat hearts were perfused on Langendorff apparatus and were subjected to global ischemia for 30 min ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured in coronary effluent to assess the degree of myocardial injury. Extent of myocardial infarct size and coronary flow rate was also measured. RRPC prevented I/R-induced myocardial injury and produced cardioprotective effects. However, cardioprotective effects of RRPC were not observed in renal failure rats, indicating the protective role of humoral factor was released from functional kidneys. In renal failure rats, exogenous administration of rhEPO (5,000 IU/kg intraperitoneal) with RRPC restored the cardioprotective effects of later. These results implicate that RRPC-induced cardioprotective effects may be mediated through release of erythropoietin from kidney.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated whether remote organ preconditioning (RPC) can preserve pulmonary function following repeated myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in a model mimicking multi-vessel off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) revascularization. Nine sheep (Group-RPC) underwent RPC by three episodes of five-minute occlusion and five-minute reperfusion of the iliac artery. Five sheep (Group-C) were time-matched controls. Afterwards, ten-minute occlusion and reperfusion of the left anterior descending, the first diagonal and the left circumflex coronary arteries were performed consecutively. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters and arterial blood gases were measured until 120 min after the final coronary reperfusion. Anesthesia was maintained with halothane in oxygen and nitrous oxide. Animals were ventilated with a tidal volume of 15-20 mL.kg(-1) in a non-rebreathing system, and a respiratory rate 14-16 min, with 5-cm H(2)O positive end expiratory pressure after thoracotomy. Repeated coronary occlusion and reperfusion was associated in this experimental model with an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and a decrease in PaO(2) and PaO(2)/FIO(2) in Group-C. After 120 min reperfusion, PaO(2) and PaO(2)/FIO(2) in Group-RPC were higher (192 +/- 69 mmHg and 241 +/- 78 vs 115 +/- 54 mmHg and 129 +/- 64, P < 0.05), while PVR and PAP were lower than in Group-C. At 120 min of reperfusion, PaO(2) and PaO(2)/FIO(2) were inversely correlated with PVR (P < 0.01). RPC by transient occlusion of the iliac artery improves lung gas exchange after repeated coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion mimicking OPCAB surgery, and preserves low PVR in sheep.Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 05/2003; 50(5):481-8. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the time course and neuronal mechanism of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) of the vasculature in humans. Non-lethal ischemia of internal organs induces local (ischemic preconditioning) and systemic (RIPC) resistance to lethal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Experimental RIPC has two temporal components, is neuronally mediated, is induced by limb ischemia, and reduces infarct size. In humans, RIPC prevents IR-induced vascular injury. Determining the time course and mechanism is a prelude to clinical outcome studies of RIPC. Endothelial IR injury was induced by arm ischemia (20 min) and reperfusion, and measured by flow-mediated dilation. To establish if there are early and late phases, RIPC (three 5-min cycles of ischemia of the contralateral arm) was applied immediately, 4, 24, and 48 h before IR. To determine neuronal involvement, trimetaphan (autonomic ganglion blocker; 1 to 6 mg/min intravenous) was infused during the application of the RIPC stimulus. Flow-mediated dilation was reduced by IR (8.7 +/- 1.1% before IR, 4.9 +/- 1.2% after IR; p < 0.001), but not when preceded by RIPC (8.0 +/- 0.8% after IR; p = NS); RIPC did not protect after 4 h (4.9 +/- 1.1% after IR; p < 0.001), but protected at 24 (8.7 +/- 1.1% after IR; p = NS) and 48 h (8.8 +/- 1.4% after IR; p = NS). Trimetaphan attenuated early (8.3 +/- 1.1% before IR, 4.2 +/- 0.9% after IR; p < 0.05) and delayed (7.3 +/- 1.0% before IR, 2.3 +/- 0.6% after IR, p < 0.001) RIPC. Remote ischemic preconditioning in humans has two phases of protection against endothelial IR injury; an early (short) and late (prolonged) phase, both of which are neuronally mediated. The potential for late phase RIPC to provide prolonged protection during clinical IR syndromes merits investigation.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2005; 46(3):450-6. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (EPO) possesses generalized neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions. We tested the efficacy of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) in preventing and reversing nerve dysfunction in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Two days after STZ [60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.), i.p.], diabetic animals were administered rhEPO (40 microg/kg of b.w.) three times weekly for 5 weeks either immediately (preventive) before or after a 5-week delay (therapeutic) after induction of hyperglycemia or at a lower dose (8 microg/kg of b.w. once per week) for 8 weeks (prolonged). Tail-nerve conduction velocities (NCV) was assessed at 5 and 11 weeks for the preventive and therapeutic schedule, respectively. Compared to nondiabetic rats, NCV was 20% lower after 5 weeks in the STZ group, and this decrease was attenuated 50% by rhEPO. Furthermore, the reduction of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity of diabetic nerves (by 55%) was limited to 24% in the rhEPO-treated group. In the therapeutic schedule, NCV was reduced by 50% after 11 weeks but by only 23% in the rhEPO-treated group. rhEPO treatment attenuated the decrease in compound muscle action potential in diabetic rats. In addition, rhEPO treatment was associated with a preservation of footpad cutaneous innervation, as assessed by protein gene product 9.5 immunostaining. Diabetic rats developed alterations in mechanical and thermal nociception, which were partially reversed by rhEPO given either in a preventative or therapeutic manner. These observations suggest that administration of rhEPO or its analogues may be useful in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2004; 101(3):823-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor