Histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer treatment: a review of the clinical toxicity and the modulation of gene expression in cancer cell.
ABSTRACT Characterization of epigenetic events in carcinogenesis has led to the discovery of a new class of oncogenes and thereby a new class of therapeutic targets. Among the new therapeutic approaches are modulation of protein lysine acetylation through inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDACs deacetylate histones as well as transcription factors and can modulate gene expression through both these mechanisms in normal and malignant cells. Furthermore, acetylation is an important posttranslational modulation of several proteins involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in normal as well as cancer cells. Even though several HDAC inhibitors have been characterized in vitro, only a limited number of these agents are in clinical trials. Various HDAC inhibitors differ in their toxicity profile when comparing the side effects described in the available clinical studies of HDAC inhibition in the treatment of cancer. These drugs may also affect normal hematopoiesis; hematologic toxicity is common to many drugs but stimulation of hematopoiesis seems to occur for others. HDAC inhibitors usually affect <10% of the genes in cancer cells. Divergent effects of HDAC inhibition on the global gene expression profiles have been described when testing various cancer cells, and this is further complicated by altered HDAC expression induced by HDAC inhibitors. However, increased p21 expression seems to be a common characteristic for most studies, suggesting an important role of this molecule during HDAC inhibitory treatment. Even though the initial studies are encouraging, additional in vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization is definitely needed.
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ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination therapy: agents that further disable these pathways through inhibition of residual gene function are speculated to enhance cell death in combination with HDACIs. A previous study from our group indicated that mitotic checkpoint kinases such as PLK1 and Aurora A are downregulated by HDACIs. We used in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of prostate cancer (PCA) to test whether combination of HDACIs with the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 can synergistically or additively kill PCA cells. AMG 900 and HDACIs synergistically decreased cell proliferation activity and clonogenic survival in DU-145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCA cell lines compared to single-agent treatment. Cellular senescence, polyploidy, and apoptosis was significantly increased in all cell lines after combination treatment. In vivo xenograft studies indicated decreased tumor growth and decreased aurora B kinase activity in mice treated with low-dose AMG 900 and vorinostat compared to either agent alone. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by scoring for phosphorylated histone H3 through immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that combination treatment with low doses of AMG 900 and HDACIs could be a promising therapy for future clinical trials against PCA.Cancer Medicine 07/2014; 3(5).
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ABSTRACT: Many patients with acute myeloid leukemia will eventually develop refractory or relapsed disease. In the absence of standard therapy for this population, there is currently an urgent unmet need for novel therapeutic agents. Targeted therapy with small molecule inhibitors represents a new therapeutic intervention that has been successful for the treatment of multiple tumors (e.g., gastrointestinal stromal tumors, chronic myelogenous leukemia). Hence, there has been great interest in generating selective small molecule inhibitors targeting critical pathways of proliferation and survival in acute myeloid leukemia. This review highlights a selective group of intriguing therapeutic agents and their presumed targets in both preclinical models and in early human clinical trials.Expert Review of Hematology 08/2014; 7(4):439-464. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel series of HDAC inhibitors demonstrating class I and IIb subtype selectivity have been identified using a scaffold-hopping strategy. Several designed compounds showed better selectivity for class I and IIb over class IIa HDAC isoforms comparing to the FDA approved HDAC targeting drug SAHA. A representative lead compound 22 bearing a biphenyl moiety demonstrated promising class I and IIb HDAC isoforms selectivity and in vitro anticancer activities against several cancer cell lines. This work could serve as a fundamental platform for further exploration of selective HDAC inhibitors using designed molecular scaffold.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2014; 86C:639-652. · 3.43 Impact Factor