Migration of potentially toxic materials used for the lining of commercial can goods remains an important issue, especially with respect to certain types of processed foods. Seafood is one type where more information is needed with respect to other ingredients used for adding value to fishery products. Most cans are internally coated with starters of resins such as bisphenol A diglycidyl-ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl-ether (BFDGE), both considered as toxic compounds. Several seafood products, sardines, tuna fish, mackerel, mussels, cod and mackerel eggs, were manufactured in different conditions changing covering sauce, time and temperature of storage and heat-treated for sterilization in cans. Migration kinetics of BADGE and BFDGE from varnish into canned products were evaluated by HPLC in 70 samples after 6, 12 or 18 months of storage. Results showed that there is no migration of BADGE in tuna fish, sardines, mussels or cod. However, migration of BFDGE occurs in all species, in a storage time-dependent way and content of fat, although migration of these compounds is not affected by sterilization conditions. All samples analyzed presented values lower than 9 mg BADGE/kg net product without exceeding European limits. However, concerning BFDGE migration, European legislation does not allow the use and/or the presence of BFDGE. Main migration takes place in mackerel reaching the highest values, 0.74 mg BFDGE/kg and 0.34 mg BADGE/kg net product, in red pepper sauce.
"Nevertheless, there is still controversy over whether low doses of BPA can cause reproductive and developmental effects in humans (Goodman et al. 2006). Significant published data are available on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) or BPA migration from can coatings into foods and food simulants (Biles et al. 1997; Kawamura et al. 1999; Yoshida et al. 2001; Goodson et al. 2002; Kang and Kondo 2003; Cabado et al. 2008), but little is known about how the migration level would be influenced by damage to the can or storage conditions. However, some workers have investigated the effects of the food-processing conditions on the migration of BPA from food or from simulating liquids (Munguıá-Lo´pez and Soto-Valdez 2001; Munguıá-Lo´pez et al. 2005; Sajiki et al. 2005; Poc¸as and Hogg 2007; Le et al. 2008). "
"BPA and BADGE are present in many commonly used products including beverage containers, baby bottles, and dental composites. Both migrate from containers into foods, and are routinely ingested (Cabado et al. 2008; Cao et al. 2009). Studies of BADGE metabolism suggest that it is not a significant source of BPA (Climie et al. 1981) although BPA leaches from some BADGE-containing dental sealants (Joskow et al. 2006; Olea et al. 1996). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), used in manufacturing coatings and resins, leach from packaging materials into food. Numerous studies suggested that BPA and BADGE may have adverse effects on human health, including the possibility that exposure to such chemicals can be superimposed on traditional risk factors to initiate or exacerbate the development of obesity. BPA is a suspected obesogen, whereas BADGE, described as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) antagonist, could reduce weight gain.
We sought to test the adipogenic effects of BADGE in a biologically relevant cell culture model.
We used multipotent mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) to study the adipogenic capacity of BADGE and BPA and evaluated their effects on adipogenesis, osteogenesis, gene expression, and nuclear receptor activation.
BADGE induced adipogenesis in human and mouse MSCs, as well as in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In contrast, BPA failed to promote adipogenesis in MSCs, but induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. BADGE exposure elicited an adipogenic gene expression profile, and its ability to induce adipogenesis and the expression of adipogenic genes was not blocked by known PPARγ antagonists. Neither BADGE nor BPA activated or antagonized retinoid "X" receptor (RXR) or PPARγ in transient transfection assays.
BADGE can induce adipogenic differentiation in both MSCs and in preadipocytes at low nanomolar concentrations comparable to those that have been observed in limited human biomonitoring. BADGE probably acts through a mechanism that is downstream of, or parallel to, PPARγ.
Environmental Health Perspectives 07/2012; 120(7):984-9. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1205063 · 7.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Certain chemicals possess the potential to modulate endocrine systems, and thereby interfere with reproductive and developmental processes. Bisphenol A is suspected to be one of them. The compound is widely used as a plastic additive, lacquer, resin, or plastic and can usually be found in food samples. An accurate and reproducible gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method to detect and measure trace amounts of the compound in rice-prepared dishes samples is proposed. Solid–liquid extraction with acetonitrile was carried out in order to isolate and pre-concentrate the analyte. The solvent was removed and a silylation step using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoro acetamide/pyridine (BSTFA/PYR) was carried out. The silylated compound was identified and quantified by GC-MS using a DB-5 MS column. Bisphenol F was used as a surrogate internal standard. The detection limit was 2.0 ng g while inter- and intra-day variability was less than 6%. Due to the absence of reference materials, the method was validated using standard addition calibration and a recovery assay. Recoveries for spiked samples were between 90% and 105%.
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