Migration of BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl-ether) and BFDGE (bisphenol F diglycidyl-ether) in canned seafood.
ABSTRACT Migration of potentially toxic materials used for the lining of commercial can goods remains an important issue, especially with respect to certain types of processed foods. Seafood is one type where more information is needed with respect to other ingredients used for adding value to fishery products. Most cans are internally coated with starters of resins such as bisphenol A diglycidyl-ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl-ether (BFDGE), both considered as toxic compounds. Several seafood products, sardines, tuna fish, mackerel, mussels, cod and mackerel eggs, were manufactured in different conditions changing covering sauce, time and temperature of storage and heat-treated for sterilization in cans. Migration kinetics of BADGE and BFDGE from varnish into canned products were evaluated by HPLC in 70 samples after 6, 12 or 18 months of storage. Results showed that there is no migration of BADGE in tuna fish, sardines, mussels or cod. However, migration of BFDGE occurs in all species, in a storage time-dependent way and content of fat, although migration of these compounds is not affected by sterilization conditions. All samples analyzed presented values lower than 9 mg BADGE/kg net product without exceeding European limits. However, concerning BFDGE migration, European legislation does not allow the use and/or the presence of BFDGE. Main migration takes place in mackerel reaching the highest values, 0.74 mg BFDGE/kg and 0.34 mg BADGE/kg net product, in red pepper sauce.
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ABSTRACT: Effects of heat processing and storage time (up to 70 days) on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from can coatings into an aqueous food simulant were determined. Distilled water was canned in two types of Mexican cans: for tuna and for jalapeño peppers. Results showed that there is an effect of heat treatment on migration of both compounds. Storage time did not show any effect in BPA migration from tuna cans. There was an effect of storage time on BPA migration from jalapeño pepper cans. Results for BADGE migration were affected by its susceptibility to hydrolyze in aqueous simulants. BADGE concentration decreased, or was not detected, during storage in both types of cans. Migration levels for BPA and BADGE were within 0.6-83.4 and <0.25-4.3 microg/kg, respectively. Both were below European and Mercosur legislation limits. Other migrating compounds were detected, although no identification was performed.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2001; 49(8):3666-71. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Migration from multi-layer laminated film pouches intended for retort foods was investigated through HPLC analysis with a fluorescence detector, and measurements of residue on evaporation, consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon. HPLC analysis revealed that the levels of migrants in oil and the water which were heated in the pouches (121 degrees C, 30 min) were ten times of those in the corresponding official simulants under the official conditions; n-heptane (25 degrees C, 60 min), and water (95 degrees C, 30 min). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and related compounds were found in the oil and the water heated in the pouches, as well as in the simulants. These compounds were thought to have been present in the adhesive between the laminated films, and migrated through the food-contact film of the package. Consumption of potassium permanganate and residue on evaporation of the heated water were ten times of those of the water simulant, while the total organic carbon level of the heated water was several-hold greater than that of the water simulant. In addition, migrant levels per surface area of the pouch were one-fourth of the concentrations per content volume of the pouch. Since compliance with the legal limits is evaluated based on the concentration per surface area, real migration into foods would be underestimated by a factor of another four.Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi) 09/2005; 46(4):133-8. · 0.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A two-dimensional probabilistic model has been developed to estimate the short-term dietary exposure of UK consumers to migrants from food packaging materials. The current EU approach uses a default scenario of assuming that all individuals are 60 kg weight and consume 1 kg of food packaged in the material of interest per day. Using four UK National Dietary and Nutrition Surveys comprising 4-7 day dietary records for different age groups and survey years, a sample representative of the UK population has been obtained consuming around 4200 different food items. Each survey provides records for around 2000 individuals and supplies detailed information on the consumption of food and data on sex, height and socio-economic status which may be used to analyse the exposure of selected groups within the community. As a result we are able to address the variation in consumption of food amongst individuals, and account for actual body weights providing a more accurate representation of the 'true' exposure. The migrants bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA) and styrene were considered as specimen compounds although the methodology employed has the flexibility to adapt to other migrants and packaging types and indeed other food contaminants. Exposure for each individual is estimated by calculating and summing the individual exposure from each item in their diet, and is repeated for all individuals in each survey to produce a distribution of exposures for the population. The packaging type of each food item is assigned by utilizing known packaging types from the database or, by sampling from a distribution based upon market share information. The parameters contributing towards the exposure from a packaged dietary item are migrant concentration and item weight. Distributions are used to represent the inherent variation and uncertainty affecting these parameters. Where data on concentrations for a particular type of food are lacking, expert judgement is used to extrapolate from available data for other food types. The model can also be run using only migration data for food simulants. In this case, concentrations expected for each of the food items are assigned based on the data for the relevant food simulant. The primary outputs of the model are distributions of estimated daily intakes for the selected population. Each distribution gives the variation across the population subject to the uncertain parameters sampled in that iteration of the model. Analysing the ensemble of distributions allows us to obtain the confidence limits around estimates for percentiles due to the uncertainties. The probabilistic approach allows sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of the input parameters and places confidence bounds on the outputs to show the effect of the uncertainties and the contribution of each food type toward the overall exposure.Food Additives and Contaminants 11/2005; 22(10):907-19. · 2.13 Impact Factor