Physical activity and likelihood of depression in adults: A review

Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC, Melbourne, Australia.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.93). 06/2008; 46(5):397-411. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.01.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review examines original research which has investigated associations between physical activity (PA) dose (i.e. frequency, intensity and duration) and domain and depression or symptoms of depression in adults.
A search of electronic databases and authors' own bibliographic libraries was performed between 2006 and 2007 for original research articles investigating associations between PA and depression in adults. A total of 27 observational and 40 intervention studies were included.
Of the studies that focused on the association between duration of PA and likelihood of depression, all five observational studies, and five of the seven intervention studies found both shorter and longer durations of PA were associated with reduced likelihood of depression. Of the studies that focused on the association between intensity of PA and likelihood of depression, four of the six observational studies found that vigorous-intensity PA was more strongly associated with decreased likelihood of depression than lower intensities. Most intervention studies showed that both intensities were effective in reducing the likelihood of depression. Two observational studies found a stronger inverse relationship of leisure-time PA with depression than PA in other domains. There is insufficient evidence regarding the importance of the PA setting on depression.
Although the dose and domain of physical activity varied across studies reviewed, evidence suggests that even low doses of PA may be protective against depression. Further studies examining the optimal domain of PA for reducing the likelihood of depression are needed.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The high prevalence of physical inactivity has led to a search for novel and feasible interventions that will enhance physical activity, especially among the least physically active individuals. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the effectiveness of a value-based intervention to promote a physically more active lifestyle among physically inactive adults. The framework of the study was based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Methods Physically inactive participants aged 30 to 50 years (n = 138) were randomly allocated to a feedback (FB, n = 69) or an acceptance- and commitment-based group (ACT + FB, n = 69). Both groups received written feedback about their objectively measured physical activity and were offered a body composition analysis. In addition, the participants in the ACT + FB group attended six group sessions and were given a pedometer for self-monitoring their physical activity during the nine-week intervention. The primary outcome was physical activity. In addition, participants’ cognitions related to exercise and physical activity were evaluated at baseline and at three- and six-month follow-ups. The changes in mean physical activity level were analysed using multilevel random regression and rank order stability, using the structural equation model. Results Participants in both groups increased their objectively measured and self-reported physical activity with high individual differences. No difference was observed in the change of physical activity level between the FB and ACT + FB groups over time. However, the cognitions related to physical activity and exercise improved more in the ACT + FB group than in the FB group. In addition, after re-analyzing the data among the non-depressive participants, higher stability was observed in objectively measured physical activity at the individual level between the three- and six-month follow-ups in the ACT + FB group as compared to FB group. Conclusions Acceptance- and commitment-based group intervention, combined with the self-monitoring of physical activity, was beneficial in supporting the cognition related to exercise and physical activity, and brought more stability to the individual level physical activity behaviour change, especially among the non-depressive participants. Trial registration, number NCT01796990 webcite. Registered in February 2013. Keywords: Acceptance and commitment therapy; ACT; Physical activity; Behaviour; Effectiveness; Adults; Psychological well-being
    BMC Public Health 03/2015; BMC Public Health, 15:260.. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1604-x · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physical activity is generally considered to be effective in reducing the prevalence of depression and promoting remission of its symptoms. However, large-scale epidemiological research on this issue is lacking in older Chinese adults. We performed a nationwide epidemiological survey to determine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community, with adjustment for potential confounders. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 9,676 community-dwelling older Chinese veterans. Depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Physical activity was self-reported using a one-year physical activity questionnaire. Information about covariates was obtained by questionnaire-based interview. Relationships between study variables and symptoms of depression were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. The median age was 82.29 (interquartile range 80.25-84.60) years. In total, 81.84% of the study participants engaged in physical activity that was predominantly light in intensity. In unadjusted analyses, physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms (5.43% versus 18.83%, P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with adjustment and controlling for confounders, physical activity was still inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was the only independent protective factor (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.72, P<0.0001) among the associated factors in this study. In a univariate general linear model, there was a significant difference in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score between subjects participating in active physical activity and those who did not (F=59.07, P<0.0001). This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and symptoms of depression in older Chinese veterans in the community. It was also indicated that the antidepressant effect of physical activity probably extended to the oldest-old, and the light-intensity physical activity was probably available for the same protective effect. This information could be used to devise further interventions to prevent or ameliorate symptoms of depression.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2015; 11:803-13. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S80295 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Several studies have revealed a high prevalence of risk factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle among individuals with lower socioeconomic status. In Slovakia, one of the most socially and health-disadvantaged groups is the Roma minority. The aim of this study is to explore differences in physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population in Slovakia. Methods: Data from the cross-sectional epidemiological HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 were used. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) respondents. The differences in health-related behaviour between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population were analysed using logistic models separately for males and females. Results: These data show a clear difference between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population with regard to leisure-time physical activity (only in women) and smoking, although not alcohol consumption. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activities such as walking or some other type of sport was significantly lower among Roma women than among non-Roma women. Men and women living in Roma settlements are more likely to smoke on a daily basis and they are heavier smokers in comparison with the majority population. HepaMeta study did not find differences in alcohol consumption between the Roma and non-Roma men. However, Roma women reported less frequent recent drinking and binge-drinking of 6 or more doses of alcohol on a single occasion. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle activities among Roma seem to contribute to these inequalities in cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality in comparison with the majority population.
    Central European journal of public health 01/2014; 22:S22-S27. · 0.80 Impact Factor