Physical activity and likelihood of depression in adults: A review

Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC, Melbourne, Australia.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.93). 06/2008; 46(5):397-411. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.01.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review examines original research which has investigated associations between physical activity (PA) dose (i.e. frequency, intensity and duration) and domain and depression or symptoms of depression in adults.
A search of electronic databases and authors' own bibliographic libraries was performed between 2006 and 2007 for original research articles investigating associations between PA and depression in adults. A total of 27 observational and 40 intervention studies were included.
Of the studies that focused on the association between duration of PA and likelihood of depression, all five observational studies, and five of the seven intervention studies found both shorter and longer durations of PA were associated with reduced likelihood of depression. Of the studies that focused on the association between intensity of PA and likelihood of depression, four of the six observational studies found that vigorous-intensity PA was more strongly associated with decreased likelihood of depression than lower intensities. Most intervention studies showed that both intensities were effective in reducing the likelihood of depression. Two observational studies found a stronger inverse relationship of leisure-time PA with depression than PA in other domains. There is insufficient evidence regarding the importance of the PA setting on depression.
Although the dose and domain of physical activity varied across studies reviewed, evidence suggests that even low doses of PA may be protective against depression. Further studies examining the optimal domain of PA for reducing the likelihood of depression are needed.

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    • "There is compelling evidence on the benefits of physical activity, including a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and some cancers (Jeon et al., 2007; Monninkhof et al., 2007; Sattelmair et al., 2011; Teychenne et al., 2008). Physical inactivity is responsible for 9% of global premature mortality (Lee et al., 2012) and is estimated to be the sixth and eighth major risk factor contributing to the burden of disease in Central and Andean Latin America, respectively (Lim et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study summarizes the evidence from quantitative systematic reviews that assessed the association between urban environment attributes and physical activity. It also documents sociopolitical barriers and facilitators involved in urban interventions linked with active living in the ten most populated urban settings of Latin America. The synthesis of evidence indicates that several attributes of urban environments are associated with physical activity, including land-use mix and cycling infrastructure. The documentary analysis indicated that despite the benefits and opportunities provided by the programs and existing infrastructure in the examined cities, an overall concern is the rising inequality in the coverage and distribution of the initiatives in the region. If these programs and initiatives are to achieve a real population level effect that helps to reduce health disparities, they need to examine their social and spatial distribution within the cities so they can reach underserved populations and develop to their full potential.
    Social Science & Medicine (1967) 04/2015; 131(April):18-30. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.02.042
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    • "The relationship of physical activity and depression is still a matter of debate. On the one hand, researchers report a protective effect of physical exercise on subsequent depression (Mikkelsen et al., 2010; Strawbridge et al., 2002; Teychenne et al., 2008). On the other hand, the question if high movers are protected against and low movers are prone to depression has still not been sufficiently addressed in studies of physical activity and depression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent data suggest a substantial association between physical activity and depressive symptoms, but there is a lack of research evaluating the physical activity levels in patients suffering from unipolar depression across different stages of disease in an objective way. The aim of the present pilot study was to objectively examine physical activity levels of this patient group compared to healthy controls. Physical activity performance of 19 patients with major depressive episode and 19 healthy controls was assessed at three different time points using a multisensory armband device (SenseWear® Pro3 Armband) and was reported as total energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (EE), metabolic equivalents (METs), physical activity (PA) and time of lying down (LD), in each case over 24h. Over all measurements, depressive patients presented a significantly lower mean TEE and EE over 24h. Moreover, the patient group showed significantly shorter duration of PA and lower average MET over 24h. When depressive symptoms abated, physical activity parameters significantly increased in the patient group. Correlation analyses demonstrated a significant relation between depressive status/anhedonia and parameters of physical activity, especially in healthy subjects. Results represented valid data for inpatients only. Acute unipolar depression was associated with a significantly lower level of physical activity and showed a significant increase in parallel to clinical improvement. Electronic monitoring of physical activity may be an additional tool for evaluating and controlling therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:310-316. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.060 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    • "High anti-depressant effects are guaranteed only for those who are initially mildly to moderately depressed (Craft, 1997; Strohle, 2009), but that was the case for participants in this study, and at least mild depression is common among prisoners (Fazel and Baillargeon, 2011). Multiple plausible mechanisms have been advanced to explain the effect of exercise on depression (Augestad et al., 2008; Teychenne et al., 2008). Physiological effects include changing the concentrations of endorphins and monoamines (Thornen et al., 1990), thus making exercise comparable in some respects to anti-depressant medication (Blumenthal et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is general population evidence that physical exercise is effective in reducing the risk of depression and has positive effects on mood. Some prisons encourage exercise, but there is no evidence specific to this group on its benefits or the relative merits of different programmes.AimsTo test the effect of physical exercise on the psychological well-being of prisoners and to determine which mental disorders are most affected by physical activity.Methods Sixty-four participants were randomly assigned across three groups: cardiovascular plus resistance training (CRT), high-intensity strength training (HIST) and no exercise. Before and after the 9-month experimental period, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised.ResultsEach form of exercise significantly reduced depression scale scores compared with those in the control group, in which average depression scale scores actually increased. The CRT group also showed a significant decrease in GSI scores on the Symptom Checklist-90 and on its interpersonal sensitivity scale, whereas the HIST group also significantly improved on the anxiety, phobic anxiety and hostility scale scores.Conclusions Our evidence, taken together with general population studies, supports introduction of supervised, moderately intense exercise for at least 1 h per week for men in prison. They form a high risk group for mental disorders, and such exercise reduces depression and anxiety. Minimal special equipment is needed for CRT. Further research should replicate the study in a larger, multi-centre trial, and examine impact on shorter-term and longer-term prisoners, female prisoners and effects on recidivism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 08/2014; DOI:10.1002/cbm.1922 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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