Article

Physical activity and likelihood of depression in adults: A review

Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC, Melbourne, Australia.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.93). 06/2008; 46(5):397-411. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.01.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review examines original research which has investigated associations between physical activity (PA) dose (i.e. frequency, intensity and duration) and domain and depression or symptoms of depression in adults.
A search of electronic databases and authors' own bibliographic libraries was performed between 2006 and 2007 for original research articles investigating associations between PA and depression in adults. A total of 27 observational and 40 intervention studies were included.
Of the studies that focused on the association between duration of PA and likelihood of depression, all five observational studies, and five of the seven intervention studies found both shorter and longer durations of PA were associated with reduced likelihood of depression. Of the studies that focused on the association between intensity of PA and likelihood of depression, four of the six observational studies found that vigorous-intensity PA was more strongly associated with decreased likelihood of depression than lower intensities. Most intervention studies showed that both intensities were effective in reducing the likelihood of depression. Two observational studies found a stronger inverse relationship of leisure-time PA with depression than PA in other domains. There is insufficient evidence regarding the importance of the PA setting on depression.
Although the dose and domain of physical activity varied across studies reviewed, evidence suggests that even low doses of PA may be protective against depression. Further studies examining the optimal domain of PA for reducing the likelihood of depression are needed.

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    • "There is compelling evidence on the benefits of physical activity, including a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and some cancers (Jeon et al., 2007; Monninkhof et al., 2007; Sattelmair et al., 2011; Teychenne et al., 2008). Physical inactivity is responsible for 9% of global premature mortality (Lee et al., 2012) and is estimated to be the sixth and eighth major risk factor contributing to the burden of disease in Central and Andean Latin America, respectively (Lim et al., 2012). "
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    Social Science & Medicine (1967) 04/2015; 131(April):18-30. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.02.042
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    • "The relationship of physical activity and depression is still a matter of debate. On the one hand, researchers report a protective effect of physical exercise on subsequent depression (Mikkelsen et al., 2010; Strawbridge et al., 2002; Teychenne et al., 2008). On the other hand, the question if high movers are protected against and low movers are prone to depression has still not been sufficiently addressed in studies of physical activity and depression. "
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    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 174C:310-316. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.060 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    • "High anti-depressant effects are guaranteed only for those who are initially mildly to moderately depressed (Craft, 1997; Strohle, 2009), but that was the case for participants in this study, and at least mild depression is common among prisoners (Fazel and Baillargeon, 2011). Multiple plausible mechanisms have been advanced to explain the effect of exercise on depression (Augestad et al., 2008; Teychenne et al., 2008). Physiological effects include changing the concentrations of endorphins and monoamines (Thornen et al., 1990), thus making exercise comparable in some respects to anti-depressant medication (Blumenthal et al., 2007). "
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