Evolutionary conservation of biogenesis of beta-barrel membrane proteins.
ABSTRACT The outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts are distinguished by the presence of beta-barrel membrane proteins. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria also harbours beta-barrel proteins. In mitochondria these proteins fulfil a variety of functions such as transport of small molecules (porin/VDAC), translocation of proteins (Tom40) and regulation of mitochondrial morphology (Mdm10). These proteins are encoded by the nucleus, synthesized in the cytosol, targeted to mitochondria as chaperone-bound species, recognized by the translocase of the outer membrane, and then inserted into the outer membrane where they assemble into functional oligomers. Whereas some knowledge has been accumulated on the pathways of insertion of proteins that span cellular membranes with alpha-helical segments, very little is known about how beta-barrel proteins are integrated into lipid bilayers and assembled into oligomeric structures. Here we describe a protein complex that is essential for the topogenesis of mitochondrial outer membrane beta-barrel proteins (TOB). We present evidence that important elements of the topogenesis of beta-barrel membrane proteins have been conserved during the evolution of mitochondria from endosymbiotic bacterial ancestors.
- EcoSal Plus. 03/2011; 2011.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) belongs to a class of bacterial adhesins that form trimeric structures. Their mature form contains a passenger domain and a C-terminal β-domain that anchors the protein in the outer membrane (OM). Little is known about how precursors of such proteins cross the periplasm and assemble into the OM. In the present study we took advantage of the evolutionary conservation in the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins between bacteria and mitochondria. We previously observed that upon expression in yeast cells, bacterial β-barrel proteins including the transmembrane domain of YadA assemble into the mitochondrial OM. In the current study we found that when expressed in yeast cells both the monomeric and trimeric forms of full-length YadA were detected in mitochondria but only the trimeric species was fully integrated into the OM. The oligomeric form was exposed on the surface of the organelle in its native conformation and maintained its capacity to adhere to host cells. The co-expression of YadA with a mitochondria-targeted form of the bacterial periplasmic chaperone Skp, but not with SurA or SecB, resulted in enhanced levels of both forms of YadA. Taken together, these results indicate that the proper assembly of trimeric autotransporter can occur also in a system lacking the lipoproteins of the BAM machinery and is specifically enhanced by the chaperone Skp.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2014; 289(43). · 4.60 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Translocon at the outer-envelope-membrane of chloroplasts 75 (Toc75) is the core component of the chloroplast protein import machinery. It belongs to the Omp85 family whose members exist in various Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts of eukaryotes. Chloroplasts of Viridiplantae contain another Omp85 homolog called outer envelope protein 80 (OEP80), whose exact function is unknown. In addition, the Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes truncated forms of Toc75 and OEP80. Multiple studies have shown a common origin of the Omp85 homologs of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts but their results about evolutionary relationships among cyanobacterial Omp85 (cyanoOmp85), Toc75, and OEP80 are inconsistent. The bipartite targeting sequence-dependent sorting of Toc75 has been demonstrated but the targeting mechanisms of other chloroplast Omp85 homologs remain largely unexplored. This study was aimed to address these unresolved issues in order to further our understanding of chloroplast evolution. Sequence alignments and recently determined structures of bacterial Omp85 homologs were used to predict structures of chloroplast Omp85 homologs. The results enabled us to identify amino acid residues that may indicate functional divergence of Toc75 from cyanoOmp85 and OEP80. Phylogenetic analyses using Omp85 homologs from various cyanobacteria and chloroplasts provided strong support for the grouping of Toc75 and OEP80 sister to cyanoOmp85. However, this support was diminished when the analysis included Omp85 homologs from other bacteria and mitochondria. Finally, results of import assays using isolated chloroplasts support outer membrane localization of OEP80tr and indicate that OEP80 may carry a cleavable targeting sequence.Frontiers in Plant Science 10/2014; 5:535. · 3.64 Impact Factor