Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside as primary phenolic antioxidants in black raspberry.
ABSTRACT Anthocyanin constituents in black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis L.) were investigated by HPLC-DAD, and their involvement as potent, significant antioxidants in black raspberries was demonstrated by three common antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS) in this study. Five anthocyanins were present in black raspberries: cyanidin 3-sambubioside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside. Their identities and structures, with particular emphasis on cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside, were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. Two of these anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside, predominated, comprising 24-40 and 49-58%, respectively, of the total anthocyanins in black raspberries. On the basis of both potency and concentration, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were found to be the significant contributors to the antioxidant systems of black raspberries. These findings indicate that these two anthocyanin compounds may function as the primary phenolic antioxidants in black raspberries. These two compounds exhibit potential biological activities that may be exploited in conjunction with other naturally occurring bioactive compounds in black raspberry fruit-based products used in clinical trials for the treatment of various types of cancer.
Article: Dietary black raspberry anthocyanins do not alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins (ACNs) from various foods have been shown to minimize the development of obesity in some animal models. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of feeding purified black raspberry (BRB) ACNs or the freeze-dried whole BRB on the development of obesity. Male C57BL/6J mice (25 days of age) were assigned at random to treatments (7/treatment; 3/cage). The treatments included (1) control low-fat diet (10% calories from fat) (LF); (2) LF plus BRB juice in place of drinking water; (3) LF diet plus purified BRB ACNs in drinking water (1.25 mg/mL); (4) control high-fat diet (60% calories from fat) (HF60); (5) HF60 diet + BRB juice in place of drinking water; (6) HF60 diet + ACNs in drinking water (1.25 mg/mL); and (7) HF60 + freeze-dried whole BRB powder (21.7 g/kg of diet). Body weight gains in mice fed HF60 diet plus purified BRB ACNs tended to be lower after 56, 63, and 70 days than in mice fed HF60 alone. Body weights were increased at time of sacrifice, but heart, liver, and kidney weights as a percentage of body weight were decreased in mice fed HF60 diet compared to LF fed mice. Weights (g or g/body weight) of epididymal and retroperitoneal fat were increased in the HF60 fed mice compared to LF fed mice. Fasting serum glucose, leptin, and insulin levels as well as homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were elevated in mice fed the HF60 diet relative to LF-fed controls. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were not altered by diet. Serum levels of resistin were increased in mice fed the HF60 diet compared to mice fed the LF diet. None of the responses measured were altered by whole BRB powder included in the diet relative to the HF60 control diet. Cyanidin containing di- or triglycosides in BRB was ineffective in altering the development of obesity in contrast to cyanidin-monoglycosides, which have been shown to be effective. The sugar moiety on the anthocyanidins may be an important factor in determining the response in the development of obesity.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2010; 58(7):3977-83. · 2.82 Impact Factor
Article: Anthocyanin-rich black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract affords chemoprevention against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins are known to possess potent anticarcinogenic properties against several cancers thus demonstrating potential for cancer prevention. Black currant (Ribes nigrum L., Grossulariaceae) fruits have a high anthocyanin content. This "superfruit" is known to possess various pharmacological effects including alleviation of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation. In contrast to a large volume of literature on the health benefits of black currant, limited evidence on antitumor effects of black currant exists with virtually no data on the prevention of experimental carcinogenesis. In the current study, we have investigated the chemopreventive effects of an anthocyanin-rich black currant skin extract (BCSE) utilizing our well-characterized model of rat liver carcinogenesis. Initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis was done by intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) followed by promotion with phenobarbital. The rats were exposed to dietary BCSE for 4 weeks prior to initiation, and the treatment was continued for 22 consecutive weeks. BCSE dose-dependently decreased the incidence, total number, multiplicity, size and volume of preneoplastic hepatic nodules. The antihepatocarcinogenic effect of BCSE was confirmed by histopathological examination of liver sections. Immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and DNA fragmentation revealed BCSE-mediated inhibition of abnormal cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in DENA-induced rat liver tumorigenesis respectively. Mechanistic studies revealed that BCSE-mediated proapototic signal during experimental hepatocarcinogenesis may be propagated via the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression at the translational level. These results along with a safety profile of BCSE encourage the development of black currant bioactive constituents as chemopreventive agents for human liver cancer.The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 01/2011; 22(11):1035-46. · 4.29 Impact Factor