Article

Monte Carlo and phantom study of the radiation dose to the body from dedicated CT of the breast.

Department of Radiology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Radiology (Impact Factor: 6.21). 05/2008; 247(1):98-105. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2471071080
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To prospectively determine the radiation dose absorbed by the organs and tissues of the body during a dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) study by using Monte Carlo methods and a phantom.
By using the Geant4 Monte Carlo tool kit, the Cristy anthropomorphic phantom and the geometry of a dedicated breast CT prototype were simulated. The simulation was used to track x-rays emitted from the source until their complete absorption or exit from the simulation limits. The interactions of the x-rays with the 65 different volumes representing organs, bones, and other tissues of the phantom that resulted in energy deposition were recorded. These data were used to compute the radiation dose to the organs and tissues during a complete dedicated breast CT scan relative to the average glandular dose to the imaged breast (relative organ dose [ROD]), by using the x-ray spectra proposed for dedicated breast CT imaging. The effectiveness of a lead shield for reducing the dose to the organs was investigated.
The maximum ROD among the organs was for the ipsilateral lung with a maximum ROD of 3.25%, followed by ROD for the heart and the thymus. Of the skeletal tissues, the sternum received the highest dose with a maximum ROD to the bone marrow of 2.24% and to the bone surface of 7.74%. The maximum ROD to the uterus, representative of that of an early-stage fetus, was 0.026%. These maxima occurred for the highest-energy x-ray spectrum (80 kVp) that was analyzed. A lead shield does not substantially protect the organs that receive the highest dose from dedicated breast CT.
Although the dose to the organs from dedicated breast CT is substantially higher than that from planar mammography, it is comparable to or considerably lower than that reached by other radiographic procedures and much lower than that of other CT examinations.

0 Followers
 · 
131 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this prospective pilot study, the feasibility of non-contrast dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) to determine primary tumor volume and monitor its changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) treatment was investigated. Eleven women who underwent NAC were imaged with a clinical prototype dedicated bCT system at three time points - pre-, mid-, and post-treatment. The study radiologist marked the boundary of the primary tumor from which the tumor volume was quantified. An automated algorithm was developed to quantify the primary tumor volume for comparison with radiologist's segmentation. The correlation between pre-treatment tumor volumes from bCT and MRI, and the correlation and concordance in tumor size between post-treatment bCT and pathology were determined. Tumor volumes from automated and radiologist's segmentations were correlated (Pearson's r = 0.935, P < 0.001) and were not different over all time points [P = 0.808, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. Pre-treatment tumor volumes from MRI and bCT were correlated (r = 0.905, P < 0.001). Tumor size from post-treatment bCT was correlated with pathology (r = 0.987, P = 0.002) for invasive ductal carcinoma larger than 5 mm and the maximum difference in tumor size was 0.57 cm. The presence of biopsy clip (3 mm) limited the ability to accurately measure tumors smaller than 5 mm. All study participants were pathologically assessed to be responders, with three subjects experiencing complete pathologic response for invasive cancer and the reminder experiencing partial response. Compared to pre-treatment tumor volume, there was a statistically significant (P = 0.0003, paired t-test) reduction in tumor volume at mid-treatment observed with bCT, with an average tumor volume reduction of 47%. This pilot study suggests that dedicated non-contrast bCT has the potential to serve as an expedient imaging tool for monitoring tumor volume changes during NAC. Larger studies are needed in future.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Phase contrast imaging, particularly of the breast, is being actively investigated. The purpose of this work is to investigate the x-ray phase contrast properties of breast tissues and commonly used breast tissue substitutes or phantom materials with an aim of determining the phantom materials best representative of breast tissues.Methods: Elemental compositions of breast tissues including adipose, fibroglandular, and skin were used to determine the refractive index, n = 1 - δ + i β. The real part of the refractive index, specifically the refractive index decrement (δ), over the energy range of 5-50 keV were determined using XOP software (version 2.3, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France). Calcium oxalate and calcium hydroxyapatite were considered to represent the material compositions of microcalcifications in vivo. Nineteen tissue substitutes were considered as possible candidates to represent adipose tissue, fibroglandular tissue and skin, and four phantom materials were considered as possible candidates to represent microcalcifications. For each material, either the molecular formula, if available, or the elemental composition based on weight fraction, was used to determine δ. At each x-ray photon energy, the absolute percent difference in δ between the breast tissue and the substitute material was determined, from which three candidates were selected. From these candidate tissue substitutes, the material that minimized the absolute percent difference in linear attenuation coefficient μ, and hence β, was considered to be best representative of that breast tissue.Results: Over the energy range of 5-50 keV, while the δ of CB3 and fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of that of fibroglandular tissue, the μ of fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material better approximated the fibroglandular tissue. While the δ of BR10 and adipose tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of that of adipose tissue, the tissue-equivalent material better approximated the adipose tissue in terms of μ. Polymethyl methacrylate, a commonly used tissue substitute, exhibited δ greater than fibroglandular tissue by ∼12%. The A-150 plastic closely approximated the skin. Several materials exhibited δ between that of adipose and fibroglandular tissue. However, there was an energy-dependent mismatch in terms of equivalent fibroglandular weight fraction between δ and μ for these materials. For microcalcifications, aluminum and calcium carbonate were observed to straddle the δ and μ of calcium oxalate and calcium hydroxyapatite. Aluminum oxide, commonly used to represent microcalcifications in the American College of Radiology recommended phantoms for accreditation exhibited δ greater than calcium hydroxyapatite by ∼23%.Conclusions: A breast phantom comprising A-150 plastic to represent the skin, commercially available adipose and fibroglandular tissue-equivalent formulations to represent adipose and fibroglandular tissue, respectively, was found to be best suited for x-ray phase-sensitive imaging of the breast. Calcium carbonate or aluminum can be used to represent microcalcifications.
    Medical Physics 04/2013; 40(4):041906. DOI:10.1118/1.4794503 · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study retrospectively analyzed the mean glandular dose (MGD) to 133 breasts from 132 subjects, all women, who participated in a clinical trial evaluating dedicated breast CT in a diagnostic population. The clinical trial was conducted in adherence to a protocol approved by institutional review boards and the study participants provided written informed consent. Individual estimates of MGD to each breast from dedicated breast CT was obtained by combining x-ray beam characteristics with estimates of breast dimensions and fibroglandular fraction from volumetric breast CT images, and using normalized glandular dose coefficients. For each study participant and for the breast corresponding to that imaged with breast CT, an estimate of the MGD from diagnostic mammography (including supplemental views) was obtained from the DICOM image headers for comparison. This estimate uses normalized glandular dose coefficients corresponding to a breast with 50% fibroglandular weight fraction. The median fibroglandular weight fraction for the study cohort determined from volumetric breast CT images was 15%. Hence, the MGD from diagnostic mammography was corrected to be representative of the study cohort. Individualized estimates of MGD from breast CT ranged from 5.7 to 27.8 mGy. Corresponding to the breasts imaged with breast CT, the MGD from diagnostic mammography ranged from 2.6 to 31.6 mGy. The mean (± inter-breast SD) and the median MGD (mGy) from dedicated breast CT exam were 13.9 ± 4.6 and 12.6, respectively. For the corresponding breasts, the mean (± inter-breast SD) and the median MGD (mGy) from diagnostic mammography were 12.4 ± 6.3 and 11.1, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that at the 0.05 level, the distributions of MGD from dedicated breast CT and diagnostic mammography were significantly different (Wilcoxon signed ranks test, p = 0.007). While the interquartile range and the range (maximum-minimum) of MGD from dedicated breast CT was lower than diagnostic mammography, the median MGD from dedicated breast CT was approximately 13.5% higher than that from diagnostic mammography. The MGD for breast CT is based on a 1.45 mm skin layer and that for diagnostic mammography is based on a 4 mm skin layer; thus, favoring a lower estimate for MGD from diagnostic mammography. The median MGD from dedicated breast CT corresponds to the median MGD from four to five diagnostic mammography views. In comparison, for the same 133 breasts, the mean and the median number of views per breast during diagnostic mammography were 4.53 and 4, respectively. Paired analysis showed that there was approximately equal likelihood of receiving lower MGD from either breast CT or diagnostic mammography. Future work will investigate methods to reduce and optimize radiation dose from dedicated breast CT.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 10/2013; 58(22):7921-7936. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/58/22/7921 · 2.92 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
17 Downloads
Available from
Oct 8, 2014