Regulation of arterial-venous differences in tumor necrosis factor responsiveness of endothelial cells by anatomic context.
ABSTRACT We analyzed tumor necrosis factor (TNF) responses of human umbilical artery and vein endothelial cells (HUAECs and HUVECs) in organ and cell culture. In organ culture, TNF induced expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 on HUVECs but only ICAM-1 on HUAECs. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, c-jun, and ATF2 by TNF was comparable in HUAECs and HUVECs, whereas binding of transcription factors and p300 co-activator to the E-selectin enhancer was lower in HUAECs compared to HUVECs. In cell culture, HUAECs rapidly acquired inducible E-selectin and VCAM-1 whereas ICAM-1 inducibility decreased. Culture of HUVECs rapidly decreased TNF responses of all three genes. By 72 hours in cell culture, TNF-treated HUVECs and HUAECs showed comparable adhesion molecule induction and transcription factor binding to the E-selectin enhancer. Freshly isolated HUAECs expressed higher levels of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) than HUVECs, consistent with greater KLF2 induction by arterial levels of shear stress in vitro. KLF2 expression decreased rapidly in both cell types during culture. Transduction of HUVECs with KLF2 reduced TNF-mediated induction of E-selectin and VCAM-1 while increasing ICAM-1 induction and reduced transcription factor/co-activator binding to the E-selectin enhancer. In conclusion, the differential responses of HUAECs and HUVECs to TNF in organ culture correlate with transcription factor/co-activator binding to DNA and converge during cell culture. Flow-induced expression of KLF2 contributes to the in situ responses of HUAECs but not of HUVECs.
Article: Prolonged fluid shear stress induces a distinct set of endothelial cell genes, most specifically lung Krüppel-like factor (KLF2).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The endothelium expresses a large repertoire of genes under apparent transcriptional control of biomechanical forces, many of which are neither cell-type nor flow specific. We set out to identify genes that are uniquely flow responsive in human vascular endothelial cells. Transcriptional profiling using commercial DNA microarrays identified 12 of 18 000 genes that were modulated at least 5-fold after 24 hours of steady laminar flow (25 dyne/cm(2)). After a 7-day exposure to unidirectional pulsatile flow (19 +/- 12 dyne/cm(2)), only 3 of 12 remained elevated at least 5-fold. A custom microarray of ~300 vascular cell-related gene fragments was constructed, and expression analysis revealed that many flow-induced genes are also induced by at least one of the following agents: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, or thrombin, indicating a more general role in adaptive or stress responses. Most flow-induced genes were also induced by TNF-alpha but not IL-1beta, suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species. A limited panel of genes that are unique for flow-exposed cultures was identified, including lung Krüppel-like factor (LKLF/KLF2) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). In marked contrast, both these genes were substantially repressed by TNF-alpha. LKLF but not CYP1B1 mRNA was detected exclusively in the vascular endothelium of healthy human aorta by in situ hybridization and appeared to be flow regulated. To date LKLF is the first endothelial transcription factor that is uniquely induced by flow and might therefore be at the molecular basis of the physiological healthy, flow-exposed state of the endothelial cell.Blood 10/2002; 100(5):1689-98. · 9.90 Impact Factor
Article: Induction of an activation antigen on postcapillary venular endothelium in human skin organ culture.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of the immune mediators interleukin 1, interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor, immune interferon, and lipopolysaccharide on the expression of the endothelial activation antigen recognized by the murine monoclonal antibody H4/18 in short term organ cultures of newborn foreskins. No endothelial staining was detectable before culture. Interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, and lipopolysaccharide each induced 2+ to 3+ H4/18 staining of microvascular endothelium at 6 hr. Combining mediators produced additive (3+ to 4+) effects, and reactivity was lost or markedly diminished by 24 hr. Incubation with culture medium alone resulted in 1+ to 2+ H4/18 staining at 6 hr, and medium conditioned by cultured foreskins, but not mock-conditioned medium, could induce H4/18 binding in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The spontaneous expression of microvascular staining in the foreskins was markedly inhibited by cyclosporin A, but not polymyxin B sulfate or dexamethasone; cyclosporin A did not inhibit induction of staining by exogenous mediators. Both light level and immunoultrastructural studies demonstrated H4/18 expression to be associated predominantly with postcapillary venular endothelial cells of the superficial vascular plexus. We conclude that microvascular endothelium of skin can undergo activation in response to exogenous and endogenous cytokines, with the greatest changes occurring in those portions of the vessels most involved in leukocyte and lymphocyte trafficking.The Journal of Immunology 09/1987; 139(5):1557-62. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: Desensitization of signaling by oncostatin M in human vascular cells involves cytoplasmic Tyr residue 759 in gp130 but is not mediated by either Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 or suppressor of cytokine signaling 3.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oncostatin M (OnM) signals through cell surface receptors, which utilize the gp130 subunit. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), OnM transiently elevates mRNA encoding for suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3). By 1 h of OnM treatment, HUVEC become refractory to the restimulation by OnM, measured as failure to reinduce SOCS-3 mRNA. OnM-induced desensitization also prevents responses to other gp130-signaling cytokines (e.g. leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin 11). OnM treatment does not affect gp130 expression levels and desensitizes signaling mediated by a transduced chimeric receptor containing extracellular domains of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRbeta) and the cytoplasmic region of gp130. Interestingly, a chimeric PDGFRbeta-gp130 mutant receptor, in which intracellular Tyr residue 759 of gp130 is replaced by a Phe residue, mediates prolonged signaling and is not cross-desensitized by OnM. Phospho-Tyr759 is the binding site for both SOCS-3 and for Src homology domain 2-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2). In human aortic smooth muscle cells, neither prevention of SOCS-3 protein induction, using STAT3 or SOCS-3 antisense, nor prevention of SHP-2 expression, also with antisense, ablates desensitization. These data suggest that desensitization of vascular cells to OnM is mediated in trans and involves Tyr residue 759 in gp130 but is not mediated by either SOCS-3 or SHP-2, the only two proteins currently known to bind to gp130 at this site.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2003; 278(27):25014-23. · 4.77 Impact Factor