Ultrasonic Characterization of Canine Myocardium Contraction

Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control (Impact Factor: 1.51). 02/1986; 33(4):347-53. DOI: 10.1109/T-UFFC.1986.26841
Source: PubMed


Absfracf-Other investigators have found ultrasonic backscatter from canine myocardium to exhibit a significant variation throughout the cardiac cycle. Also, several studies have shown a change in an ultrasonic property of canine myocardium when ischemia is induced. In an attempt to gain some understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for these variations, several ultrasonic measurements were made on canine papillary muscle in vitro during both isotonic (constant load) and isometric (constant length) contractions. Integrated backscatter was found to exhibit a significant cyclic variation (p < 0.05) during isotonic (constant load) contractions, but not during isometric (constant length) contractions. This result suggests that the variation in the physical arrangement of structures within the tissue that occurs during contraction plays an important role in determining ultrasonic backscatter. No significant cyclic variation was found in the backscattered signal envelope statistics or in acoustic attenuation during either isotonic or isometric contractions.

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    • "Support for stochastic modeling also comes from the fact that the US images of soft tissues have a random texture pattern termed speckle, similar to the appearance of a rough surface irradiated by a coherent laser source. In prior works, the first order statistics of the amplitude of backscattered signals from several tissues, such as the liver (Sommer et al. 1987), heart (Wear et al. 1986), breast (Shankar et al. 2001), eye (Romijn et al. 1991), and kidney (Wear et al. 1997), have been studied. Our previous studies on healthy skin tissues showed that the K, Weibull and generalized gamma (GG) distributions were able to model the envelope pdfs well (Raju and Srinivasan 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The temporal correlation properties of ultrasonic echoes from contracting myocardium are investigated theoretically. Myocar- dium is modeled as a dense suspension of moving particles, with time- varying scattering amplitudes. Single scattering is assumed. Echoes from different particles are added coherently. The variance of particle velocity is proposed as an indicator of contractile performance. It is shown how this parameter may be extracted from the average corre- lation of pairs of echoes arising from separate ultrasound pulses. An experiment is performed in which a manufactured target with known motion characteristics is interrogated using a commercial medical ul- trasound scanner. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with theory. Finally, practical considerations for perform- ing and interpreting these measurements in human myocardium are discussed. EVERAL INVESTIGATIONS have demonstrated that it may be possible to evaluate cardiac contractile per- formance accurately with ultrasound. One technique in- volves the measurement of the frequency average of the intensity of ultrasonic echoes emanating from myocar- dium. Echo intensity has been found to vary throughout the cardiac cycle in normal canine myocardium, with the maximum level occurring at end-diastole and the mini- mum at end-systole ( l), (2). In addition, the magnitude of this effect has a regional dependence throughout the heart, with areas of greater contractile activity exhibiting greater amplitudes of variation (3). The extent of the cyclic variation of echo intensity has also been observed to drop significantly in canine myocardium making a tran- sition from normal to ischemic 141. Thus the magnitude of cyclic variation may be interpreted as a measure of contractile performance. A second technique entails quantitative analysis of video images of the heart produced by ultrasound scan-
    IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 02/1987; 34(3):368-75. DOI:10.1109/T-UFFC.1987.26955 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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