Article

Significant virus replication in Langerhans cells following application of HIV to abraded skin: relevance to occupational transmission of HIV.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 03/2008; 180(5):3297-304. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.180.5.3297
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The cellular events that occur following occupational percutaneous exposure to HIV have not been defined. In this study, we studied relevant host cellular and molecular targets used for acquisition of HIV infection using split-thickness human skin explants. Blockade of CD4 or CCR5 before R5 HIV application to the epithelial surface of skin explants completely blocked subsequent HIV transmission from skin emigrants to allogeneic T cells, whereas preincubation with C-type lectin receptor inhibitors did not. Immunomagnetic bead depletion studies demonstrated that epithelial Langerhans cells (LC) accounted for >95% of HIV dissemination. When skin explants were exposed to HIV variants engineered to express GFP during productive infection, GFP+ T cells were found adjacent to GFP+ LC. In three distinct dendritic cell (DC) subsets identified among skin emigrants (CD1a+langerin+DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule grabbing non-integrin (SIGN)- LC, CD1a+langerin-DC-SIGN- dermal DC, and CD1a-langerin-DC-SIGN+ dermal macrophages), HIV infection was detected only in LC. These results suggest that productive HIV infection of LC plays a critical role in virus dissemination from epithelium to cells located within subepithelial tissue. Thus, initiation of antiretroviral drugs soon after percutaneous HIV exposure may not prevent infection of LC, which is likely to occur rapidly, but may prevent or limit subsequent LC-mediated infection of T cells.

Full-text

Available from: Andrew Blauvelt, May 01, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
121 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As the body's most exposed interface with the environment, the skin is constantly challenged by potentially pathogenic microbes, including viruses. To sense the invading viruses, various types of cells resident in the skin express many different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and cytosolic DNA sensors, that can detect the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the viruses. The detection of viral PAMPs initiates two major innate immune signaling cascades: the first involves the activation of the downstream transcription factors, such as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), which cooperate to induce the transcription of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The second signaling pathway involves the caspase-1-mediated processing of IL-1β and IL-18 through the formation of an inflammasome complex. Cutaneous innate immunity including the production of the innate cytokines constitutes the first line of host defence that limits the virus dissemination from the skin, and also plays an important role in the activation of adaptive immune response, which represents the second line of defence. More recently, the third immunity "intrinsic immunity" has emerged, that provides an immediate and direct antiviral defense mediated by host intrinsic restriction factors. This review focuses on the recent advances regarding the antiviral immune systems, highlighting the innate and intrinsic immunity against the viral infections in the skin, and describes how viral components are recognized by cutaneous immune systems.
    Journal of Dermatological Science 06/2014; 75(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2014.05.004 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epidermal Langerhans cells (eLCs) uniquely express the C-type lectin receptor langerin in addition to the HIV entry receptors CD4 and CCR5. They are among the first target cells to encounter HIV in the anogenital stratified squamous mucosa during sexual transmission. Previous reports on the mechanism of HIV transfer to T cells and the role of langerin have been contradictory. In this study, we examined HIV replication and langerin-mediated viral transfer by authentic immature eLCs and model Mutz-3 LCs. eLCs were productively infected with HIV, whereas Mutz-3 LCs were not susceptible because of a lack of CCR5 expression. Two successive phases of HIV viral transfer to T cells via cave/vesicular trafficking and de novo replication were observed with eLCs as previously described in monocyte-derived or blood dendritic cells, but only first phase transfer was observed with Mutz-3 LCs. Langerin was expressed as trimers after cross-linking on the cell surface of Mutz-3 LCs and in this form preferentially bound HIV envelope protein gp140 and whole HIV particles via the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Both phases of HIV transfer from eLCs to T cells were inhibited when eLCs were pretreated with a mAb to langerin CRD or when HIV was pretreated with a soluble langerin trimeric extracellular domain or by a CRD homolog. However, the langerin homolog did not inhibit direct HIV infection of T cells. These two novel soluble langerin inhibitors could be developed to prevent HIV uptake, infection, and subsequent transfer to T cells during early stages of infection.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2014; 193(5). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1400630 · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The chronology of HIV infection in mucosal tissue after sexual transmission is unknown. Several potential HIV target cells are present at these sites, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4 T lymphocytes. Dendritic cells and macrophages are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and are thus involved in cross-talk with T cells. This close contact may favor efficient HIV-1 transfer to T lymphocytes, resulting in rapid HIV-1 dissemination. We investigated the role of APCs in HIV transfer to T cells by incubating Langerhans cells and interstitial dendritic cells (IDCs) or monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) with HIV for 2 h before addition of uninfected autologous CD4 T lymphocytes. HIV infection was recorded after different time points. Following staining, the measurement of intracellular p24 in the different cell populations was analyzed by flow cytometry. We showed that Langerhans cells/IDCs and macrophages efficiently transferred HIV to CD4 T cells. Interestingly, a rapid HIV transfer in trans predominated in MDMs, whereas cis transfer mainly occurred in Langerhans cells/IDC cocultures. Neutralizing antibody 2G12, added to HIV-loaded APCs, efficiently blocked both the trans and the cis infection of T cells. These findings highlight the major contributions of various mucosal cells in HIV dissemination and suggest that HIV hijacks the different properties of APCs to favor its dissemination through the body. They emphasize the role of macrophages in the rapid transmission of HIV to T lymphocytes at mucosal sites, dendritic cells being prone to migration to lymphoid organ for subsequent dissemination by cis transfer.
    AIDS (London, England) 01/2014; 28(5). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000193 · 6.56 Impact Factor