Acute humoral rejection of renal allografts in CCR5(-/-) recipients.

Department of Surgery, Transplantation Division, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 6.19). 04/2008; 8(3):557-66. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.02125.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Increasing detection of acute humoral rejection (AHR) of renal allografts has generated the need for appropriate animal models to investigate underlying mechanisms. Murine recipients lacking the chemokine receptor CCR5 reject cardiac allografts with marked C3d deposition in the parenchymal capillaries and high serum donor-reactive antibody titers, features consistent with AHR. The rejection of MHC-mismatched renal allografts from A/J (H-2(a)) donors by B6.CCR5(-/-) (H-2(b)) recipients was investigated. A/J renal allografts survived longer than 100 days in wild-type C57BL/6 recipients with normal blood creatinine levels (28 +/- 7 micromol/L). All CCR5(-/-) recipients rejected renal allografts within 21 days posttransplant (mean 13.3 +/- 4 days) with elevated creatinine (90 +/- 31 micromol/L). The rejected allografts had neutrophil and macrophage margination and diffuse C3d deposition in peritubular capillaries, interstitial hemorrhage and edema, and glomerular fibrin deposition. Circulating donor-reactive antibody titers were 40-fold higher in B6.CCR5(-/-) versus wild-type recipients. Depletion of recipient CD8 T cells did not circumvent rejection of the renal allografts by CCR5-deficient recipients. In contrast, microMT(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients, incapable of producing antibody, did not reject most renal allografts. Collectively, these results indicate the rapid rejection of renal allografts in CCR5(-/-) recipients with many histopathologic features observed during AHR of human renal allografts.

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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenic role of macrophages in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) remains unclear. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is a potent chemotactic factor for monocytes and macrophages. The current studies used a murine model of AMR to investigate the role of graft-derived CCL2 in AMR and how macrophages may participate in antibody-mediated allograft injury. B6.CCR5−/−/CD8−/− recipients rejected MHC-mismatched WT A/J allografts with high donor-reactive antibody titers and diffuse C4d deposition in the large vessels and myocardial capillaries, features consistent with AMR. In contrast, A/J.CCL2−/− allografts induced low donor-reactive antibody titers and C4d deposition at Day 7 posttransplant. Decreased donor-reactive CD4 T cells producing interferon gamma were induced in response to A/J.CCL2−/− versus WT allografts. Consequently, A/J.CCL2−/− allograft survival was modestly but significantly longer than A/J allografts. Macrophages purified from WT allografts expressed high levels of IL-1β and IL-12p40 and this expression and the numbers of classically activated macrophages were markedly reduced in CCL2-deficient allografts on Day 7. The results indicate that allograft-derived CCL2 plays an important role in directing classically activated macrophages into allografts during AMR and that macrophages are important contributors to the inflammatory environment mediating graft tissue injury in this pathology, suggesting CCL2 as a therapeutic target for AMR.
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