Acute humoral rejection of renal allografts in CCR5(-/-) recipients.

Department of Surgery, Transplantation Division, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 6.19). 04/2008; 8(3):557-66. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.02125.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Increasing detection of acute humoral rejection (AHR) of renal allografts has generated the need for appropriate animal models to investigate underlying mechanisms. Murine recipients lacking the chemokine receptor CCR5 reject cardiac allografts with marked C3d deposition in the parenchymal capillaries and high serum donor-reactive antibody titers, features consistent with AHR. The rejection of MHC-mismatched renal allografts from A/J (H-2(a)) donors by B6.CCR5(-/-) (H-2(b)) recipients was investigated. A/J renal allografts survived longer than 100 days in wild-type C57BL/6 recipients with normal blood creatinine levels (28 +/- 7 micromol/L). All CCR5(-/-) recipients rejected renal allografts within 21 days posttransplant (mean 13.3 +/- 4 days) with elevated creatinine (90 +/- 31 micromol/L). The rejected allografts had neutrophil and macrophage margination and diffuse C3d deposition in peritubular capillaries, interstitial hemorrhage and edema, and glomerular fibrin deposition. Circulating donor-reactive antibody titers were 40-fold higher in B6.CCR5(-/-) versus wild-type recipients. Depletion of recipient CD8 T cells did not circumvent rejection of the renal allografts by CCR5-deficient recipients. In contrast, microMT(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients, incapable of producing antibody, did not reject most renal allografts. Collectively, these results indicate the rapid rejection of renal allografts in CCR5(-/-) recipients with many histopathologic features observed during AHR of human renal allografts.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lymphopenia is induced by lymphoablative therapies and chronic viral infections. We assessed the impact of lymphopenia on cardiac allograft survival in recipients conditioned with peritransplant costimulatory blockade (CB) to promote long-term graft acceptance. After vascularized MHC-mismatched heterotopic heart grafts were stably accepted through CB, lymphopenia was induced on day 60 posttransplant by 6.5 Gy irradiation or by administration of anti-CD4 plus anti-CD8 mAb. Long-term surviving allografts were gradually rejected after lymphodepletion (MST = 74 ± 5 days postirradiation). Histological analyses indicated signs of severe rejection in allografts following lymphodepletion, including mononuclear cell infiltration and obliterative vasculopathy. Lymphodepletion of CB conditioned recipients induced increases in CD44(high) effector/memory T cells in lymphatic organs and strong recovery of donor-reactive T cell responses, indicating lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) and donor alloimmune responses occurring in the host. T regulatory (CD4(+) Foxp(3+) ) cell and B cell numbers as well as donor-specific antibody titers also increased during allograft rejection in CB conditioned recipients given lymphodepletion. These observations suggest that allograft rejection following partial lymphocyte depletion is mediated by LIP of donor-reactive memory T cells. As lymphopenia may cause unexpected rejection of stable allografts, adequate strategies must be developed to control T cell proliferation and differentiation during lymphopenia.
    American Journal of Transplantation 07/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A mouse model of kidney transplantation was first described in 1973 by Skoskiewicz et al. Although the mouse model is technically difficult, it is attractive for several reasons: the mouse genome has been characterized and in many aspects is similar to man and there is a greater diversity of experimental reagents and techniques available for mouse studies than other experimental models. We reviewed the literature on all studies of mouse kidney transplantation to report the donor and recipient strain combinations that have been investigated and the resultant survival and histological outcomes. Some models of kidney transplantation have used the transplanted kidney as a life-supporting organ, however, in many studies the recipient mouse's native kidney has been left in situ. Several different combinations of inbred mouse strains have been reported, with varying degrees of injury, survival or tolerance because of haplotype differences. This model has been exceptionally useful as an investigational tool to understand multiple aspects of transplantation including acute rejection, cellular and humoral rejection mechanisms and their treatment. Furthermore, this model has been used to investigate disease mechanisms beyond transplant rejection including intrinsic renal disease and infection-associated pathology.
    Transplant International 05/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We utilized mouse models to elucidate the immunologic mechanisms of functional graft loss during mixed antibody-mediated rejection of renal allografts (mixed AMR), in which humoral and cellular responses to the graft occur concomitantly. Although the majority of T cells in the graft at the time of rejection were CD8 T cells with only a minor population of CD4 T cells, depletion of CD4 but not CD8 cells prevented acute graft loss during mixed AMR. CD4 depletion eliminated antidonor alloantibodies and conferred protection from destruction of renal allografts. ELISPOT revealed that CD4 T effectors responded to donor alloantigens by both the direct and indirect pathways of allorecognition. In transfer studies, CD4 T effectors primed to donor alloantigens were highly effective at promoting acute graft dysfunction, and exhibited the attributes of effector T cells. Laser capture microdissection and confirmatory immunostaining studies revealed that CD4 T cells infiltrating the graft produced effector molecules with graft destructive potential. Bioluminescent imaging confirmed that CD4 T effectors traffic to the graft site in immune replete hosts. These data document that host CD4 T cells can promote acute dysfunction of renal allografts by directly mediating graft injury in addition to facilitating antidonor alloantibody responses.
    American Journal of Transplantation 01/2014; · 6.19 Impact Factor