In budding yeast mitosis is endonuclear and associated with a very limited condensation of the chromosomes. Despite this partial chromosomal condensation, condensin is conserved and essential for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic cycle. Here, we investigate the localization of condensin during the mitotic cycle. In addition to a constitutive association with rDNA, we have discovered that condensin is localized to the kinetochore in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Shortly after duplication of the spindle pole body, the yeast equivalent of the centrosome, we observed a local enrichment of condensin colocalizing with kinetochore components. This specific association is consistent with mutant phenotypes of chromosome loss and defective sister chromatid separation at anaphase. During a short period of the cell cycle, we observed, at the single cell level, a spatial proximity of condensin and a cohesin rosette, without colocalization. Furthermore, using a genetic screen we demonstrated that condensin localization at kinetochores is specifically impaired in a mutant for ulp2/smt4, an abundant SUMO protease. In conclusion, during chromosome segregation, we established a SUMO-dependent cell cycle-specific condensin concentration colocalizing with kinetochores.
"Ulp2 cleaves Sumo propeptide into a mature form that can be conjugated to target proteins, and, through its protease activity, also allows the de-sumoylation of target proteins (Geiss-Friedlander and Melchior 2007). Budding yeast ULP2 has been identified as a multicopy suppressor of the smc2-6 allele of condensin, and lack of ULP2 is colethal with smc4-1 (Bachellier-Bassi et al. 2008; Strunnikov et al. 2001). Thus, Ulp2 seems to play a positive role in chromosome condensation that is conserved in budding and fission yeasts. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitotic chromosome condensation is a pre-requisite for the accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division, and the conserved condensin complex a central player of this process. However, how condensin binds chromatin and shapes mitotic chromosomes remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide binding studies showing that in most species condensin is enriched near highly expressed genes suggest a conserved link between condensin occupancy and high transcription rates. To gain insight into the mechanisms of condensin binding and mitotic chromosome condensation, we searched for factors that collaborate with condensin through a synthetic lethal genetic screen in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We isolated novel mutations affecting condensin, as well as mutations in four genes not previously implicated in mitotic chromosome condensation in fission yeast. These mutations cause chromosome segregation defects similar to those provoked by defects in condensation. We also identified a suppressor of the cut3-477 condensin mutation, which largely rescued chromosome segregation during anaphase. Remarkably, of the five genes identified in this study, four encode transcription co-factors. Our results therefore provide strong additional evidence for a functional connection between chromosome condensation and transcription.
"A reasonable hypothesis is that this interaction is mediated through condensin. Condensin is present at TFIIIC binding sites in budding yeast, including tRNA genes (41,42) and it also co-localizes with Ndc10, a subunit of the inner kinetochore, which binds directly to the centromere (43). Some tRNA genes co-localize with the centromere (44,45), in a process mediated by condensin (45). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TFIIIB and TFIIIC are multi-subunit factors required for transcription by RNA polymerase III. We present a genome-wide high-resolution footprint map of TFIIIB-TFIIIC complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, obtained by paired-end sequencing of micrococcal nuclease-resistant DNA. On tRNA genes, TFIIIB and TFIIIC form stable complexes with the same distinctive occupancy pattern but in mirror image, termed 'bootprints'. Global analysis reveals that the TFIIIB-TFIIIC transcription complex exhibits remarkable structural elasticity: tRNA genes vary significantly in length but remain protected by TFIIIC. Introns, when present, are markedly less protected. The RNA polymerase III transcription terminator is flexibly accommodated within the transcription complex and, unexpectedly, plays a major structural role by delimiting its 3'-boundary. The ETC sites, where TFIIIC binds without TFIIIB, exhibit different bootprints, suggesting that TFIIIC forms complexes involving other factors. We confirm six ETC sites and report a new site (ETC10). Surprisingly, TFIIIC, but not TFIIIB, interacts with some centromeric nucleosomes, suggesting that interactions between TFIIIC and the centromere may be important in the 3D organization of the nucleus.
Nucleic Acids Research 07/2013; 41(17). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt611 · 9.11 Impact Factor
"Loops of pericentric chromatin occupy the space between separated sister chromatids in metaphase. These loops compose 20% of the mass of the segregation apparatus and are enriched in cohesin and condensin relative to the remainder of the genome (Megee et al. 1999; Weber et al. 2004; Bachellier-Bassi et al. 2008). Since chromatin loops cannot be removed from the genome, the strategy to test their contribution to spindle length was to change their state of compaction. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle in budding yeast is exemplified by its simplicity and elegance. Microtubules are nucleated from a crystalline array of proteins organized in the nuclear envelope, known as the spindle pole body in yeast (analogous to the centrosome in larger eukaryotes). The spindle has two classes of nuclear microtubules: kinetochore microtubules and interpolar microtubules. One kinetochore microtubule attaches to a single centromere on each chromosome, while approximately four interpolar microtubules emanate from each pole and interdigitate with interpolar microtubules from the opposite spindle to provide stability to the bipolar spindle. On the cytoplasmic face, two to three microtubules extend from the spindle pole toward the cell cortex. Processes requiring microtubule function are limited to spindles in mitosis and to spindle orientation and nuclear positioning in the cytoplasm. Microtubule function is regulated in large part via products of the 6 kinesin gene family and the 1 cytoplasmic dynein gene. A single bipolar kinesin (Cin8, class Kin-5), together with a depolymerase (Kip3, class Kin-8) or minus-end-directed kinesin (Kar3, class Kin-14), can support spindle function and cell viability. The remarkable feature of yeast cells is that they can survive with microtubules and genes for just two motor proteins, thus providing an unparalleled system to dissect microtubule and motor function within the spindle machine.
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