The pulvinar sign: frequency and clinical correlations in Fabry disease
ABSTRACT Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A that results in cellular accumulation of galactoconjugates, mainly globotriaosylceramide, particularly in blood vessels. Neuroradiological findings include ischemic stroke, white matter lesions, vascular abnormalities (vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia and vessel tortuosity), and posterior thalamus involvement (the so called pulvinar sign). The purpose of our study was to investigate the presence of the increased pulvinar signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging - pulvinar sign and its relationship with other clinical findings, in a non-selected cohort of Fabry patients.
We performed a prospective analysis of two populations of patients (36 subjects) with Fabry disease. Patients were followed-up at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Bichat Hospital in Paris (France) and at the Neurological Clinic of the University Hospital of Padova (Italy). Brain MR studies of each patient included T1- and T2- weighted images, FLAIR sequences, and in some cases diffusion weighted images.
A total of 36 patients (16 males, 20 females) were investigated in 14 families. The pulvinar sign was found in 5 male patients, but not in female patients. Seven patients had had at least one stroke (territorial or lacunar). There was no correlation between stroke and the pulvinar sign. All patients with the pulvinar sign had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Four patients out of five with the pulvinar sign were on dialysis or had a kidney transplantation.
Our findings suggest that the pulvinar sign is a highly specific sign of Fabry disease, found in male patients with cardiac signs and severe kidney involvement.
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ABSTRACT: Several single gene disorders share clinical and radiologic characteristics with multiple sclerosis and have the potential to be overlooked in the differential diagnostic evaluation of both adult and paediatric patients with multiple sclerosis. This group includes lysosomal storage disorders, various mitochondrial diseases, other neurometabolic disorders, and several other miscellaneous disorders. Recognition of a single-gene disorder as causal for a patient's 'multiple sclerosis-like' phenotype is critically important for accurate direction of patient management, and evokes broader genetic counselling implications for affected families. Here we review single gene disorders that have the potential to mimic multiple sclerosis, provide an overview of clinical and investigational characteristics of each disorder, and present guidelines for when clinicians should suspect an underlying heritable disorder that requires diagnostic confirmation in a patient with a definite or probable diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Stroke 12/2014; 46(1). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006283 · 6.02 Impact Factor
Article: Fabry disease02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.diii.2014.02.021