Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation (Impact Factor: 5.09). 03/2008; 86(2):140-6. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.07.040089
Source: PubMed


In low-income countries, infectious diseases still account for a large proportion of deaths, highlighting health inequities largely caused by economic differences. Vaccination can cut health-care costs and reduce these inequities. Disease control, elimination or eradication can save billions of US dollars for communities and countries. Vaccines have lowered the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and will control cervical cancer. Travellers can be protected against "exotic" diseases by appropriate vaccination. Vaccines are considered indispensable against bioterrorism. They can combat resistance to antibiotics in some pathogens. Noncommunicable diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease, could also be reduced by influenza vaccination. Immunization programmes have improved the primary care infrastructure in developing countries, lowered mortality in childhood and empowered women to better plan their families, with consequent health, social and economic benefits. Vaccination helps economic growth everywhere, because of lower morbidity and mortality. The annual return on investment in vaccination has been calculated to be between 12% and 18%. Vaccination leads to increased life expectancy. Long healthy lives are now recognized as a prerequisite for wealth, and wealth promotes health. Vaccines are thus efficient tools to reduce disparities in wealth and inequities in health.

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Available from: Sanjoy K Datta, Feb 04, 2014
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    • "A comprehensive vaccination programme is a cornerstone of good public health and will reduce inequities and poverty. —Andre et al. (2008, p. 140; 143; 144) Vaccinations save an estimated number of 2 to 3 million lives per year (World Health Organization [WHO], 2012). For "
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    ABSTRACT: Even though there are policies in place, and safe and effective vaccines available, almost every country struggles with vaccine hesitancy, i.e., a delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination. Consequently, it is important to understand the determinants of individual vaccination decisions in order to establish effective strategies to support the success of country-specific public health policies. Vaccine refusal can result from complacency, inconvenience, a lack of confidence, and a rational calculation of pros and cons. Interventions should therefore be carefully targeted to focus on the reason for non-vaccination. We suggest that there are several interventions that may be effective for complacent, convenient, and calculating individuals while interventions that might be effective for those who lack confidence are scarce. Thus, efforts should be concentrated on motivating the complacent, removing barriers for those for whom vaccination is inconvenient, and adding incentives and additional utility for the calculating. These strategies might be more promising, economic, and effective than convincing those who lack confidence in vaccination.
    10/2015; 2(1):61-73. DOI:10.1177/2372732215600716
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    • "Vaccination has played a crucial role in decreasing global infectious diseases. After almost 220 years since the creation of the first vaccine by Edward Jenner, vaccination is still considered the most feasible and effective means of protection from multiple infectious diseases [1]. However, some individuals experience vaccine-preventable illnesses and complications even after vaccination . "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the high success of protection against several infectious diseases through effective vaccines, some sub-populations have been observed to respond poorly to vaccines, putting them at increased risk for vaccine-preventable diseases. In particular, the limited data concerning the effect of obesity on vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy suggests that obesity is a factor that increases the likelihood of a poor vaccine-induced immune response. Obesity occurs through the deposition of excess lipids into adipose tissue through the production of adipocytes, and is defined as a body-mass index (BMI)≥30kg/m(2). The immune system is adversely affected by obesity, and these "immune consequences" raise concern for the lack of vaccine-induced immunity in the obese patient requiring discussion of how this sub-population might be better protected. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Vaccine 07/2015; 33(36). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.06.101 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    • "In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to ensure that all children had access to six basic vaccines: Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and measles-containing vaccine (MCV) [3]. A recent report suggests that vaccination against four diseases targeted by the EPI - diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and measles - averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year [4], [5]. Despite this success, 22.6 million infants remained unvaccinated (defined as non-receipt of DTP1)-or under-vaccinated (defined as non-receipt of DTP3) worldwide in 2012 [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Children unreached by vaccination are at higher risk of poor health outcomes and India accounts for nearly a quarter of unvaccinated children worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate compositional and contextual determinants of non-receipt of childhood vaccines in India using multilevel modelling. Methods and Findings We studied characteristics of unvaccinated children using the District Level Health and Facility Survey 3, a nationally representative probability sample containing 65 617 children aged 12–23 months from 34 Indian states and territories. We developed four-level Bayesian binomial regression models to examine the determinants of non-vaccination. The analysis considered two outcomes: completely unvaccinated (CUV) children who had not received any of the eight vaccine doses recommended by India’s Universal Immunization Programme, and children who had not received any dose from routine immunisation services (no RI). The no RI category includes CUV children and those who received only polio doses administered via mass campaigns. Overall, 4.83% (95% CI: 4.62–5.06) of children were CUV while 12.01% (11.68–12.35) had received no RI. Individual compositional factors strongly associated with CUV were: non-receipt of tetanus immunisation for mothers during pregnancy (OR = 3.65 [95% CrI: 3.30–4.02]), poorest household wealth index (OR = 2.44 [1.81–3.22] no maternal schooling (OR = 2.43 [1.41–4.05]) and no paternal schooling (OR = 1.83 [1.30–2.48]). In rural settings, the influence of maternal illiteracy disappeared whereas the role of household wealth index was reinforced. Factors associated with no RI were similar to those for CUV, but effect sizes for individual compositional factors were generally larger. Low maternal education was the strongest risk factor associated with no RI in all models. All multilevel models found significant variability at community, district, and state levels net of compositional factors. Conclusion Non-vaccination in India is strongly related to compositional characteristics and is geographically distinct. Tailored strategies are required to overcome current barriers to immunisation.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106528. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106528 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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